Associate Professor - Campus Stavanger
Department of Accounting and Operations Management
Riana is Associate Professor at BI Norwegian Business School, the department of Accounting Auditing and Business Analytics. She also has an Adjunct Professor position in Risk Management and Societal Safety, University of Stavanger. Riana has an MBA and PhD degree in risk management.
Abdollah, Kiani & Steen, Riana (2022)
On the boundaries of probabilistic risk assessment in the risk-based inspection: An alternative approach BN-RBI
Leva, Maria Chiara; Patelli, Edoardo, Podofillini, Luca & Wilson, Simon (red.). Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022)
The motivation for conducting a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is providing decision-making support on the choice of arrangements and measures to deal with identified risks. By estimating risk, the decision-maker is informed. However, recent developments in risk management as a scientific field founded on the idea that the application of PRA is irrational and potentially misleading, particularly in cases associated with large uncertainties about likelihoods and outcomes. Using an example of risk-based inspection (RBI) for explosion-protected equipment, we demonstrate that PRA also has an important role in risk management, even when the uncertainties are large. However, addressing the wide range of specificities and other complexity in such context goes far beyond the boundaries of PRA theory. An alternative is a probabilistic approach grounded on the Bayesian Network modelling (BN-RBI). By its flexible nature, the application of BN allows for using information from various data sources and provides a more realistic risk picture for RBI purposes. Still, there are some issues according to the study's results: (1) converting qualitative risk zones to appropriate quantitative parameters requires a precise definition of zone classification, which is lacking in existing inspection data; (2) insufficient data for modelling consequences of ignition in the Norwegian petroleum industry, as these events are rare; (3) the subjectivity element in converting the consequence of failure to monetary value, that is based on the analyst's knowledge and preference. However, despite these challenges, we demonstrate that applying the BN-RBI approach allows for developing a dynamic casual and consequence risk picture.
Zuiderwijk, Dianka; Steen, Riana & Pedro, Ferreira (2022)
Learning from Operational planning
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management (IJBCRM), 12(3)
Cantelmi, Raffaele; Steen, Riana, Di Gravio, Giulio & Patriarca, Riccardo (2022)
Resilience in emergency management: Learning from COVID-19 in oil and gas platforms
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 76 Doi: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2022.103026
Emergency or crisis management, both in civilian or military context, is regarded as a complex socio-technical system, whose dynamic nature and complexity require a holistic approach. Over time, scholars developed diverse strategies and methods to capture such complexity and effectively design emergency plans for more or less severe disasters scenarios. Nonetheless, planning is not always an omni-comprehensive task, pushing organizations to stretch their adaptive capacities in dynamic and challenging settings. This manuscript explores such adaptive capacity as put in place by a leading Norwegian organization in providing emergency management solutions, facing unexpected challenges (at the time of the event): handling of Covid-19 infection episodes on offshore oil platforms. The study, conducted through the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) highlights the relevance of organizational learning which allows to handle emergencies by adapting plans to the specific context and by renewing new emergency management procedures derived from lessons learned. The study focuses on three different Covid-19 infection management cases to understand the nuances of actions and emerging adaptations that led to the development of a revised of an emergency plan, seen again through the lens of FRAM. While the methodological approach refers to Covid-19 infection management, we believe it can be extended into larger crisis management, providing a use case for the applicability of FRAM into emergency management scenarios.
Steen, Riana & Pollock, Kevin (2022)
Effect of Stress on Safety-critical Behaviour: An Examination of combined Resilience Engineering and Naturalistic Decision-making Approaches
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management Doi: 10.1111/1468-5973.12393
Combining the conceptual tools and methods of resilience engineering (RE) with naturalistic decision-making (NDM), in the context of police critical incident command, this study explores the capacity of individual commanders to manage occupational stress during a critical incident or crisis. A case scenario and interviews, together with cognitive task analysis (CTA), are used to investigate how stress affects decision making and performance. The analysis shows: (1) As a social process, sensemaking goes beyond an individual's cognitive capacity. It depends on teams and involves collaboration, sharing and assessing risks and uncertainties. (2) In terms of improvisation, decision-making requires organisational support in training and authorisation. (3) The mechanisms that ensure the synchronisation of activities link to an operational communication strategy grounded on transparency and trust between the parties involved. (4) Individual adaptive capacity also has organisational characteristics. It improves by facilitating and stimulating proactive learning across the organisation. Bringing RE and NDM together clarifies interdependencies. Thus, the gap between the organisational system and the individual's performance might be closed, which improves performances at the sharp end by a feedback loop that reconciles bottom-up and top-down views.
Steen, Riana; Haakonsen, Geir & Patriarca, Riccardo (2022)
'Samhandling': On the nuances of resilience through case study research in emergency response operations
Standard emergency-management procedures offer guidance on how organizations can improve their handling of all types of emergencies. However, such a generalization undermines uncertainties and oversimplifies the complexity of real work practices during an emergency response operation (ERO). The handling of the COVID-19 pandemic highlights how uncertainty and escalating consequences reinforce the need for resilience in EROs. To illustrate the key elements of our suggested approach and its practical implications, we discuss the issues in light of a case study related to a COVID-19 outbreak on a floating oil rig in the North Sea. The analysis reveals several instances of creative problem solving, and individual and collective efforts beyond the scope of the standard procedures. It also underlines how the shortcomings of resource allocation and over-planning might lead to inflexibility, thus harming EROs' efficiency. Our analysis highlights that the key to resilient EROs lies in robust coordination, the ability to improvise, transparency, and trusting communication between the actors involved. Greater focus on network building—proactively maintained through regular training and exercise activities—strengthens resilience in emergency-management systems. All these traits link to the Norwegian term “samhandling,” a notion which is here proposed to summarize and connect these resilience capacities.
Steen, Riana; Ingvaldsen, Geir & Patriarca, Riccardo (2021)
Engineering resilience in a prison's performance management system
While organisations are becoming more complex than ever, their applied performance management (PM) systems are still based on the conventional PM approach, derived from the need for control and accountability. On the other hand, turbulent changes, growing interdependencies across organisations, and increasing uncertainty have created challenges beyond the boundaries of traditional approaches. This study explores how principles and methods from the resilience engineering (RE) field can be applied to improve organisations' adaptive capacity in the sense that they anticipate, recognise, adapt to and absorb external or internal disturbances. By discussing features of different components of PM systems and ideas in RE, we provide a framework that links the elements of a PM system and the main features of RE at the cultural, strategic, and operational levels. The approach is instantiated and validated in the context of correctional service institutes, focusing on both security threats and related safety implications for staff and other inmates. We use a Norwegian prison as a case study and apply the proposed framework to assess the institute's resilience potentials.
Bruno, Lars Christian & Steen, Riana (2021)
Norwegian oil market concentration and its effects on the oil service companies 1993–2013
Scottish Journal of Political Economy Doi: 10.1111/sjpe.12304
This paper explores the effect of market concentration of the Norwegian oil production sector (NPS) on Norway's second- largest industry, the oilfield services companies (OFS). To capture this effect, we use the system generalized method of moments approach (GMM) to estimate an em-pirical model, spanning the period 1993– 2013. The findings indicate that increased market concentration is consistent with lower profitability of the oilfield services companies, as the bargaining power of oil companies relative to service companies increases. Increased knowledge about this effect could contribute to improving strategies for the further de-velopment of these industries by stakeholders
Steen, Riana; Ribeiro, Hugo & Shukla, Anurag (2021)
Safety and Security: A cross-professional comparison
Castanier, Bruno; Cepin, Marko, Bigaud, David & Berenguer, Christophe (red.). Proceedings of the 31st European Safety and Reliability Conference
Steen, Riana & Molde, Alf Inge (2021)
Håndtering av langvarige beredskapshendelser: Læringspunkter etter covid-19-utbrudd på West Phoenix
Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, s. 70- 79. - Full text in research archive
Den tradisjonelle risiko- og sårbarhetsanalysen er utgangspunkt for dagens beredskapsplaner, som består av rammer og prosedyrer for håndtering av definerte fare- og ulykkessituasjoner (DFU-er). Turbulente endringer, økende gjensidig avhengighet på tvers av organisasjoner samt økende grad av usikkerhet skaper imidlertid utfordringer som ligger utenfor grensene for den tradisjonelle beredskapstilnærmingen. Håndteringen av beredskapshendelser knyttet til koronaepidemien synliggjør hvordan usikkerhet, tidspress og eskalerende konsekvenser forsterker behovet for resiliens, altså motstandsdyktighet, i beredskapsarbeidet. Gjennom studien trekker vi frem læringspunkter fra hvordan et covid-19-utbrudd på den flytende oljeriggen West Phoenix ble håndtert på operativt og strategisk nivå. Basert på en metodetriangulering utforsker studien rollene til oljeselskapets beredskapsorganisasjoner og deres håndtering av utbruddet. Resultatet fra vår analyse av empiriske funn fremhever at nøkkelen til resilient beredskapsarbeid ligger i koordinering samt evne til improvisasjon, åpenhet, samarbeid og tillitsfull kommunikasjon mellom involverte aktører.
Steen, Riana; Patriarca, Riccardo & Di Gravio, Giulio (2021)
The chimera of time: Exploring the functional properties of an emergency response room in action
Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management Doi: 10.1111/1468-5973.12353
Emergency response (ER) planners have developed plans either under "all-hazards" approach, focusing on a full spectrum of emergencies or under a specific scenario—in which planning underlines aligned actions to respond to a particular situation. Either of them represents the so-called Work-As-Imagined (WAI) operation. However, the growing complexity, the scope of emerging situation and the level of uncertainty, create unpredicted challenges for ER operation, which represent another variety of work named Work-As-Done (WAD). These challenges require different degrees of adaptation to avoid the cascading impacts of an event into an accident, or even a disaster. Drawing upon the traditional Functional Resonance Analysis (FRAM), we provide a novel FRAM representation, which reflects adaptive capacities on functional inter-relationships, and their evolution over time in different scenarios. Rather than using time as an aspect of the FRAM hexagon in its traditional sense, we propose an explicit time-dependent analysis. We outline how to make the chimera of time response feasible in ER operations and how to represent respective sources of success. Based on our FRAM approach, we conduct an incident analysis referred to an event that happened in Gjøa in 2017, in Norway at the North Sea, to understand adaptation in the four different ER phases, that is mobilizing, alert/warning, combat and normalization.
Steen, Riana & Rønningsbakk, Bernt (2021)
Emergent Learning During Crisis: A case study of the Arctic Circle border crossing at Storskog in Norway
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP) Doi: 10.1002/rhc3.12211
This explorative study addresses emergent learning related to the refugee crisis in Norway in 2015. We define emergent learning as organizational learning that occurs as a benign by‐product of solving immediate problems as they arise. The study is based mainly on secondary data; media coverage, public evaluation report, and other public documentation. The results from empirical research confirm that emergent learning has had a profound influence on how the Storskog crisis in 2015 was managed. Our findings also reveal suboptimal problem solving, insufficient management capacity, and public organizations who were not prepared to respond fast enough.
Pollock, Kevin & Steen, Riana (2020)
Total Defence Resilience: viable or not during COVID-19? A comparative study of Norway and the UK.
Risk, Hazards & Crisis in Public Policy (RHCPP) Doi: 10.1002/rhc3.12207
The Total Defence (TD) concept aims to provide an effective crisis response structure by increasing societal resilience. However, the complexity of its structure regarding resource mobilisation and management process highlights the need for a complexity-oriented approach in the operationalising of TD. We study the application of TD during the COVID19 crisis and explore what makes the TD a viable system with resilience capabilities in the face the crisis. We apply the Viable Systems Model as a methodology to compare the viability of the UK and Norwegian TD systems, both of which use systems networks to achieve resilience, and contrast the different outcomes of each country. Our analysis highlights that: Managing the complexity of the TDS requires that all of the involved agencies proactively adopt a transparent approach to a joint decision making. This demands a wide range of sources of innovative solutions at different levels. Joint exercises, developed by the responsible agencies, enhance mutual understating of roles and responsibilities and crisis response structure. This calls for institutionalised support to dedicate resources. To avoid communications challenges, involved agencies in the TDS need to adopt an open messaging strategy, highlighting how to deal with uncertainties in communicating of decisions and action.
Steen, Riana & Ferreira, Pedro NP (2020)
Resilient flood-risk management at the municipal level through the lens of the Functional Resonance Analysis Model
This exploratory study takes a closer look at the flood Risk Management (RM) system at a municipality level. The current practices of RM in municipalities follow to a large extent, a standard structure of RM processes. Their application comes short of addressing the wide range of local specificities and other complexity related socio-technical factors that can have widespread impacts, much beyond the municipal scope. This study uses concepts and ideas from the resilience engineering literature to enhance the practices of the RM system. We apply the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) to investigate the extent to which key RM activities are in line with generating anticipating, monitoring, responding and learning capabilities in the flood RM system. We examine the performance of RM functions, how they are coupled, and whether they can be sustained in the wake of a flood event. A triangulation of various qualitative research approaches is adopted, namely using semi-structured interviews, document analysis and workshop. Our findings reveal how the application of FRAM provides a deeper understanding of the underlying factors that shape the resilience of the RM process.
Steen, Riana & Morsut, Claudia (2019)
Resilience in Crisis Management at the Municipal Level: The Synne Storm in Norway
This paper focuses on the role resilience plays in flood crisis management at the municipal level. Drawing from crisis management and the resilience literature, we outline a conceptual framework for crisis management that incorporates resilience abilities, namely the ability to respond, monitor, anticipate, and learn. Then, through an in‐depth analysis of a flood event, provoked by the Synne storm in Norway in 2015, we explore the extent to which Eigersund municipality succeeded in managing the flood. We conclude by outlining the importance of resilience abilities to cope with learning and coordination challenges and by proposing further research endeavors.
Steen, Riana (2019)
On the Application of the Safety-II Concept in a Security Context
This paper presents an alternative and broader security risk perspective, incorporat-ing uncertainty, as a two-dimensional combination of (1) threat (Th) on value (Vl), (2) vulnerability (Vu) given coping capabilities (Cc), and associated uncertainties U (will the threat scenario occur? and to what degree are we vulnerable?). Moreo-ver, this work attempts to provide an integrated approach to the safety and secu-rity fields. We look closely into the issues related to Safety-I, Safety-II and security. Whereas conventional safety management approaches (Safety-I) are based on hind-sight knowledge and risk assessments calculating historical data-based probabilities, the concept of Safety-II looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to be resilient in the sense that they recognise, adapt to and absorb disturbances. Three determinants that shape the Safety-II concept in the security perspective are the capacity of organisations to operate in changing circumstances; formulating strat-egies that promote a willingness to devote resources to security purposes, driven mainly by the organisation’s leader; and an organisational culture that encourage people to speak up (respond), think creatively (anticipate), and act as mindful par-ticipants (monitor and learn). Based on clarifying some of the fundamental build-ing blocks of security risk assessment, this work develops an extended security risk assessment, including an analysis of both vulnerability and resilience. The analysis explores how the system works following any type of threat scenario and determines whether key functions and operations can be sustained.
Steen, Riana (2017)
How to understand and define stress in an operational risk context
Steen, Riana & Tangenes, Tor (2017)
The trinity of resilient organisation: aligning performance management with organisational culture and strategy formation
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management (IJBCRM), 7(2), s. 127- 150. Doi: 10.1504/IJBCRM.2017.086069
In this work, we argue that resilience, as the fundamental quality needed to prosper from significant change that disrupts an organisation's expected patterns of events, depends on the organisation's culture, strategy content and formation and performance management systems. Thus, it is thought-provoking that research in the field of performance management is largely disconnected from the adjoining fields of culture, strategy formation and safety management. By discussing features of and connections between organisational culture and strategy formation for resilient organisation, we provide a platform on which a performance management framework is developed. Vital in this respect is an organisation's ability to address the factual, potential, actual and critical. On the one hand, our work aspires to shed light on and bring research attention to the trinity of organisational culture, strategy formation and performance management. On the other, our suggested resilient performance management framework contributes to make the concept of resilience operational.
Steen, Riana & Tangenes, Tor (2017)
Toward Resilient Organization: Strengthening Performance Management in an Era of Turbulent Change
Walls, Lesley; Revie, Matthew & Bedford, Tim (red.). Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice : Proceedings of ESREL 2016 (Glasgow, Scotland, 25-29 September 2016)
Steen, Riana (2015)
A risk assessment approach to support the launching of new products, services or processes
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management (IJBCRM), 6(1), s. 17- 35. Doi: 10.1504/IJBCRM.2015.070347
This research paper aims to develop a practical method to highlight certain key risk factors involved in the product development process. A new definition of the term 'launch risk' is introduced in this work. The term is defined as the uncertainty about and severity of the consequences of failed launch. A risk management framework for launching is provided as well as a weighted average scoring model for launching (WASL) as an intrinsic part of the suggested framework. WASL is used to identify, evaluate and communicate the critical risk factors involved with the launching processes. Using a hypothetical launching idea, this study demonstrates how applying the suggested risk management framework can increase the ability of a firm to make better strategic decisions in relation to the launch of the new product or the modification of an existing product as a part of its overall portfolio.
Steen, Riana & Aven, Terje (2011)
A risk perspective suitable for resilience engineering
Safety Science, 49(2), s. 292- 297. Doi: 10.1016/j.ssci.2010.09.003
Steen, Riana & Aven, Terje (2010)
Comparison of two cost-benefit type of analyses to support a safety related decision under large uncertainties : a case of use of wireless technology in schools
Bris, Radim; Martorell, Sebastián & Guedes Soares, C. (red.). Reliability, Risk and Safety. Theory and Applications
Aven, Terje & Steen, Riana (2010)
The concept of ignorance in a risk assessment and risk management context
Reliability Engineering & System Safety, 95(11), s. 1117- 1122. Doi: 10.1016/j.ress.2010.05.006
There are many definitions of ignorance in the context of risk assessment and risk management. Most refer to situations in which there are lack of knowledge. poor basis for probability assignments and possible outcomes not (fully) known. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the ignorance concept in this setting. Based on a set of risk and uncertainty features, we establish conceptual structures characterising the level of ignorance. These features include the definition of chances (relative frequency-interpreted probabilities) and the existence of scientific uncertainties. Based on these structures, we suggest a definition of ignorance linked to scientific uncertainties, i.e. the lack of understanding of how consequences of the activity are influenced by the underlying factors. In this way, ignorance can be viewed as a condition for applying the precautionary principle. The discussion is also linked to the use and boundaries of risk assessments in the case of large uncertainties, and the methods for classifying risk and uncertainty problems. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aven, Terje & Steen, Riana (2010)
On the boundaries of probabilistic risk assessment in the face of uncertainties: a case of piracy and armed robberies against ships in the Gulf of Aden
International Journal of Business Continuity and Risk Management (IJBCRM), 1(2), s. 113- 124. Doi: 10.1504/IJBCRM.2010.033633
Aven, Terje & Steen, Riana (2009)
Comparisons and discussion of different integrated risk approaches
Martorell, Sebastián; Guedes Soares, Carlos & Barnett, Julie (red.). Safety, reliability and risk analysis : theory, methods and applications / editors: S. Martorell [et al.]
Steen, Riana & Smørholm, Margaret (2022)
Økonomi 2- Næringslivsøkonomi, økonomi og ledelse
Smørholm, Margareth & Steen, Riana (2018)
Økonomi og ledelse: Næringslivsøkonomi
Bruno, Lars Christian & Steen, Riana (2016)
Oil supply industry 1980-2014
[Academic lecture]. 41st Annual Economic and Business History Society Conference.
|2010||University of Stavanger||Ph.D.|
|2013 - Present||UIS, University of Stavanger (UIS)||Adjunct Associate Professor, Risk Management & Societal Safety|
|2012 - Present||BI Norwegian Business School||Associate Professor|