Employee Profile

Kristian Alm

Associate Professor - Department of Communication and Culture


Alm, Kristian & Guttormsen, David S.A. (2021)

Enabling the Voices of Marginalized Groups of People in Theoretical Business Ethics Research

Journal of Business Ethics, s. 1- 18. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-021-04973-3 - Full text in research archive

The paper addresses an understudied but highly relevant group of people within corporate organizations and society in general—the marginalized—as well as their narration, and criticism, of personal lived experiences of marginalization in business. They are conventionally perceived to lack traditional forms of power such as public influence, formal authority, education, money, and political positions; however, they still possess the resources to impact their situations, their circumstances, and the structures that determine their situations. Business ethics researchers seldom consider marginalized people’s voices and experiences as resources to understand their lives, as demonstrated through a review of 7500 articles published in the Journal of Business Ethics and Business Ethics Quarterly (2000–2019). Only 78 studies included aspects of marginalized groups. 69 of those studies discussed the topic of marginalized groups of people, but without integrating their explicit voices into the text. Only 9 of the 78 articles featured marginalized people’s explicit voices about their marginalization experiences incorporated into the text as a source for exploration. None of the identified studies discussed the potential for theorizing based on such voices. This paper contributes to business ethics theory by developing four theoretical possibilities vis-à-vis the critical voices of marginalized people’s experiences in business: (a) marginalized theory on critical agency and freedom of speech; (b) the gatekeeping role of academia; (c) primary sources; and (d) a participative perspective. Discussing the theoretical potential of quoting the above voices can enrich business ethics research in terms of the theoretical understanding of marginalized groups in business.

Alm, Kristian & Brown, Richard Mark (2020)

John Rawls' concept of the reasonable: A study of stakeholder action and reaction between British Petroleum and the victims of the oil spill in the gulf of Mexico

Journal of Business Ethics Doi: 10.1007/s10551-020-04474-9 - Full text in research archive

In his political philosophy, John Rawls has a normative notion of reasonable behaviour expected of citizens in a pluralist society. We interpret the various strands of this idea and introduce them to the discourse on stakeholder dialogue in order to address two shortcomings in the latter. The first shortcoming is an unnoticed, artificial separation of words from actions which neglects the communicative power of action. Second, in its proposed new role of the firm, the discourse of political CSR appeared to offer a promising synthesis of deliberation and action. However, the discourse has been criticized for its shortcoming in failing to provide a regulatory environment for corporation—stakeholder dialogue. Through our interpretation of Rawls’ notion of reasonableness in citizens, the article makes two important theoretical contributions to the debate on stakeholder dialogue. First, we transfer Rawls’ injunction in insisting that dialogues between business corporations and their weaker stakeholders must be understood as consisting of both verbal exchanges and actions. Second, we propose that the coercive power of government ought to provide a necessary context for stakeholder dialogue, and that by doing so, it can provide a way forward for the discourse of political CSR. We illustrate the usefulness of this contribution from Rawls in an analysis of BP’s behaviour towards thousands of victims following the Deepwater Horizon blowout in 2010.

Alm, Kristian & Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl (2020)

Human Rights Violations at the Workplace: Uncovering and Documenting - Günter Wallraff's Activist Whistleblowing Method

Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl (red.). Handbook of Business Legitimacy. Responsibility, Ethics and Society

The aim of this chapter is to provide a theory of activist whistleblowing for justice and dignity as the framework for detecting injustice and human rights abuses in business and organizations. This is important for trust and business legitimacy. We suggest that whistleblowing is an important field of human rights in business and essential for creating public awareness of human rights abuses and democratic engagement in promoting human rights in business. In order to develop such a theory, we use the activist work and controversial life of the German journalist and writer Günter Wallraff based on a confrontation with the dominant concepts of whistleblowing in relation to business and human rights.

Brown, Richard Mark & Alm, Kristian (2016)

Tillit til sannheten. En utfordring for BBC.

Alm, Kristian; Brown, Richard Mark & Røyseng, Sigrid (red.). Kommunikasjon og ytringsfrihet i organisasjoner

Alm, Kristian & Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl (2016)

Whistleblowing as Employee’s Freedom of Speech. Günter Wallraff's authorship as an illustrative case

Nordicum-Mediterraneum, 11(3) Doi: 10.33112/nm.11.3.6

Alm, Kristian; Brown, Richard Mark & Røyseng, Sigrid (2016)

Kommunikasjon og ytringsfrihet i organisasjoner

Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Alm, Kristian (2015)

Chains of trust or control? A stakeholder dilemma

Journal of Business Ethics Education, 12, s. 53- 76. Doi: 10.5840/jbee2015124

Alm, Kristian (2013)

"The dark side of the moon": a theoretical framework of complicity applied to the Norwegian Government Pension Fund Global

Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment, 3(3), s. 184- 203. Doi: 10.1080/20430795.2013.791140

Alm, Kristian; Andersen, Erling S. & Kvalnes, Øyvind (2013)

Tillit i prosjekter

Magma forskning og viten, 16(3), s. 26- 33.

Alm, Kristian (2012)

Responsible Investment in Times of Turmoil


Alm, Kristian (2012)

Yrkesetikk - utfordringer for næringsliv og finans


Alm, Kristian (2011)

Responsible Investments in Times of Turmoil


Alm, Kristian (2010)

The Norwegian Pension Fund: an ethical ‘gold standard’ for international climatic investments?

Veggeland, Noralv (red.). Innovative regulatory approaches coping with Scandinavian and European Union policies

Alm, Kristian (2009)

Challenges to Investment Ethics in the Norwegian Petroleum Fund: a newspaper Debate

Philosophica, 80, s. 21- 44.

Engelseth, Per; Takeno, Takeo & Alm, Kristian (2009)

Food safety, quality and ethics in supply chains : a case study of informing in international fish distribution

Lindgreen, Adam; Hingley, Martin K. & Vanhamme, Joëlle (red.). The crisis of food brands : sustaining safe, innovative and competitive food supply

Alm, Kristian; Engelseth, Per & Karlsen, Anniken (2009)

Discourses of implementing information systems in corporate merger : a case study from the food exporting industry

Fritz, M. (red.). System dynamics and innovation in Food networks 2009 : proceedings of the 3rd International European Forum on System Dynamics and Innovation in food Nettworks, February 16-02, 2009, Innsbruck-Igls, Austria

In 2007 five different industrial food producers merged to become one single firm. This paper places focus on the challenge these actors had in deciding on, implementing, and using an information system to support mainly their raw material purchasing and finished product sales function. Studies show that a large part of information system implementation failures are related to insufficient alignment between various aspects or parts of an organization and the new technology (Miller 2001, Wognum 2004). A report of a working group from The Royal Academy of Engineering and The British Computer Society concerning the challenges of complex IT project (RAEng, 2004) supports this view stating that the most pressing problems are related to the human aspect of processes involved in these kinds of projects, and that further developments in methods and tools to support the design and delivery of such projects could help to raise success rates. Among key findings of this study were: • The levels of professionalism observed in software engineering are generally lower than those in other branches of engineering, although there are exceptions • Senior managers are often ill qualified to handle issues relating to complex IT projects • The importance of project management is not well understood and usually underrated • The vital role of the systems architects in major IT projects is frequently not appreciated and there is a shortage of appropriately skilled individuals • Basic research into complexity and associated issues is required to enable the effective development of complex, globally distributed systems

Alm, Kristian & Sievänen, Riikka (1)

Institutional investors, climate change and human rights

Journal of Sustainable Finance & Investment [Kronikk]

Alm, Kristian (1)

Slipp gjesteredaktører til

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Oftedal, Elin Merethe & Alm, Kristian (2023)

Understanding responsibility across spheres

[Academic lecture]. Paper-slams.

Alm, Kristian (2021)

En teori om tillit som nøkkel til å nyfortolke sokratisk dialog

[Academic lecture]. Konferanse.

Alm, Kristian & Guttormsen, David S.A. (2021)


[Academic lecture]. Konferanse.

Gran, Anne-Britt; Kampen Kristensen, Linn-Birgit, Røssaak, Eivind, Furseth, Peder Inge, Sverdljuk, Jana Bentze, Alm, Kristian & Moreno, Valentina (2019)

Bokforbruk, bibliotek og lesing i digitale tider. DnD-rapport nr. 4

[Report]. BI Centre for Creative Industries.

Alm, Kristian (2018)

John Rawls’ concept of the reasonable – a pilot study of British Petroleum’s behaviour in its stakeholder engagement with the victims of the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico.

[Academic lecture]. Seminar/konferanse.

Alm, Kristian (2018)

Etiske perspektiver på varsling - diskusjon og forslag til tiltak. Høringsuttalelse til NOU 2018: 6 Varsling – verdier og vern. Varslingsutvalgets utredning om varsling i arbeidsliv

[Report]. Regjeringen.

Brown, Richard Mark & Alm, Kristian (2017)

John Rawls' concept of the reasonable - a key to Stakeholder Dialogue. British Petroleum's compensation for the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico

[Academic lecture]. European Business Ethics Network EBEN Annual Conference.

Brown, Richard Mark & Alm, Kristian (2016)

Stakeholder Dialogue and Rawls' Reasonable Disagreement

[Academic lecture]. EBEN Research Conference 2016.

Alm, Kristian (2016)

Günter Wallraff - journalisten som varsler

[Academic lecture]. Seminar om Günter Wallraffs varslingsjournalistikk.

Alm, Kristian (2016)


Alm, Kristian; Brown, Richard Mark & Røyseng, Sigrid (red.). Kommunikasjon og ytringsfrihet i organisasjoner

Alm, Kristian (2016)

Stakeholder Dialogue and Rawls’ Reasonable Disagreement

[Academic lecture]. European Business ethics Networks research conference.

Alm, Kristian (2015)

Plagiarism as risk in co-authorship.Advisors co-authorship with PhD-students in 521 PhD-dissertations in 4 research institutions in Norway

[Academic lecture]. Vitenskapelig konferanse.

Alm, Kristian (2014)

Chains of trust or control? Identyfying a stakeholder dilemma

[Academic lecture]. Business Ethics in a European Perspective. A case for Unity in Diversity?.

Alm, Kristian (2014)

Research ethics and plagiarism

[Academic lecture]. Seiminar.

Alm, Kristian (2014)

Etisk kommunikasjon: å si fra om kritikkverdige forhold

Brønn, Peggy Simcic & Arnulf, Jan Ketil (red.). Kommunikasjon for ledere og organisasjoner

Alm, Kristian (2013)

En kritisk vurdering av Harald Grimens tillitsteori

[Academic lecture]. EBEN Skandinavia workshop.

Alm, Kristian (2013)

A whistleblowing on plagiarism and three declarations on its legitimacy

[Academic lecture]. EBEN Annual Conference 2013: Licence to operate.

Alm, Kristian & Brinkmann, Johannes (2011)

Wise responses to moral wrongdoing. A report from a Socratic dialogue among middle managers in a bank

[Academic lecture]. Vitenskapelig konferanse.

Alm, Kristian (2011)

”Trust as rationalization in professional chains – an ethical challenge.”

[Academic lecture]. Vitenskapelig konferanse.

Alm, Kristian (2011)

Etikk og god rådgivningsskikk

Woje, Nils (red.). Oppdateringsprøven for finansielle rådgivere. Pensumbok 2011

Alm, Kristian & Brinkmann, Johannes (2010)

Listening to and working with the ones who don’t blow the whistle: Drafting an action research agenda

[Academic lecture]. Annual Conference of the European Business Ethics Network.

Alm, Kristian; Engelseth, Per & Karlsen, Anniken (2009)

Discourses of implementing information systems in corporate merger: a case study from the food exporting industry

[Academic lecture]. System Dynamics and Innovation in Food Networks 2009.

Alm, Kristian (2008)

ETISKE UTFORDRINGER FOR EN GLOBAL INVESTOR. Bidrag til 2008 evalueringen av Statens pensjonsfond - Utland. Finansdepartementet

[Report]. Handelshøyskolen BI, Finansdepartementet.

Alm, Kristian (2008)

A critisim of the ethical guidelines of the Norwegian oil fund

[Academic lecture]. European Business Ethics Networks forskningskonferanse.

Engelseth, Per & Alm, Kristian (2007)

Ethical aspects of Managing Food Safety and Quality in a Supply Chain Context

[Academic lecture]. The 19th annual conference for nordic researchers in logistics : NOFOMA 2007.

Ronge, Kari; Aakre, Marie, Alm, Kristian & Bomann-Larsen, Lene (2001)

Verdier ved livets slutt - en antologi

[Report]. Verdikommisjonen, Oslo.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
1997 University of Oslo Ph.D.
1986 University of Oslo Master
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2008 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Associate Professor
2006 - 2008 BI Norwegian Business School Assistant professor
2005 - 2008 BI Norwegian Business School Researcher and Senior lecturer
2004 - 2004 Integritet Film A/S Advisor
2001 - 2003 Freelance author Author
1998 - 2001 The Norwegian Government Commission on Human Values Editor & Secretary
1991 - 1997 University of Oslo Scholarship holder
1990 - 1990 University of Oslo Administration collaborator
1989 - 1989 University of Oslo Teacher
1979 - 1979 Eikåsen MS-hjem Hospital assistant