Employee Profile

Ratib Lekhal

Adjunct Associate Professor - Department of Communication and Culture

Publications

Wilhelmsen, Tiril; Lekhal, Ratib, Alexandersen, Nina, Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek & Wang, Mari Vaage (2021)

Children’s temperament moderates the long-term effects of pedagogical practices in ECEC on children’s externalising problems

European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 29(2), s. 206- 223. Doi: 10.1080/1350293X.2021.1895273 - Full text in research archive

In this study, we explored how free play and scaffolding practices in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) related to children’sexternalising problems both in ECEC and later in school.Furthermore, we aimed to reduce the knowledge gap of whether these relations depended on children’s differences in emotional temperament. We used structural equation modelling to analysedata from 7421 children from the Norwegian Mother, Father an dChild Cohort Study. Results indicated that more free playassociated with less externalising problems in ECEC for children ingeneral. For children with higher emotionality, more free playrelated to increased externalising problems in school. Scaffoldingin ECEC was not associated with externalising problems, butmoderated the longitudinal association of free play for children with higher emotionality. All children benefited from free play in ECEC for their concurrent mental health. However, for childrenwith higher emotionality, more free play in ECEC might be a riskfactor for reduced mental health in school, where there is lessfree play than in ECEC. More scaffolding in combination with freeplay in ECEC can reduce this risk. Further research should addressthe content of play and scaffolding practices in more detail.

Nystad, Kathrin; Drugli, May Britt, Lydersen, Stian, Lekhal, Ratib & Buøen, Elisabet Solheim (2021)

Toddlers' stress during transition to childcare

European Early Childhood Education Research Journal, 29(2), s. 157- 182. Doi: 10.1080/1350293X.2021.1895269

In toddlers, the transition from home to childcare might elicit high levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Measuring cortisol may give an indicator for children’s experience and hence, may help improve this transition. We applied linear mixed model analyses to investigate the cortisol levels of 119 toddlers during their transition to childcare across time of day (morning, afternoon, and evening) and phase (accompanied by parents, separated from parents, and after four to six weeks in childcare). The influence of age, gender, number of siblings, and childcare group size was analyzed. Time of day and phase influenced cortisol levels significantly. On average, children had elevated cortisol levels in the afternoon throughout transition, with the peak coming in the separation phase. Cortisol levels declined significantly toward the evening. Children younger than 14 months showed higher evening levels and higher afternoon levels after 4–6 weeks in childcare. The findings suggest that the onset of childcare – particularly separation from parents – may be demanding for toddlers. Low evening levels indicate relief of tension at home. Higher levels of afternoon cortisol of under 14- months-old children at the follow-up measurement may indicate that younger children need more time to settle in at childcare.

Lekhal, Ratib; Drugli, May Britt, Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne & Buøen, Elisabet Solheim (2020)

A model of intervention and implementation of quality building and quality control in childcare centers to strengthen the mental health and development of 1-3-year olds: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial of thrive by three

JMIR Research Protocols, 9(10), s. 1- 12. Doi: 10.2196/17726 - Full text in research archive

Drugli, May Britt; Lekhal, Ratib & Buøen, Elisabet Solheim (2020)

Tilvenning og foreldresamarbeid: de yngste i barnehagen

Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Denne boken omhandler den viktige overgangen fra hjem til barnehage og inngår i serien «De yngste i barnehagen – fra forskning til praksis». Boken har som målsetting å bidra til at de yngste barna får en «sømløs» tilvenning til barnehagen. Det krever et godt samarbeid mellom foreldre og ansatte, og gode rutiner som passer for små barn. Små barn har grunnleggende behov for trygghet, tilhørighet og forutsigbarhet, samtidig som de er nysgjerrige og lekende utforskere. En god tilvenning til barnehagen ivaretar alle disse aspektene. Boken består av fire deler. I del en viser forfatterne til den nye rammeplanen, samt presenterer bokens teoretiske utgangspunkt som er systemteori, nyere teori om barns utvikling og tilknytningsteori. Del to omhandler foreldresamarbeid, da dette er helt sentralt for en god overgang fra hjem til barnehage. I del tre beskrives forskning som foreligger på tilvenning og i del fire beskrives en rekke praktiske tips til god praksis, samt refleksjonsoppgaver som kan benyttes i arbeidet med å evaluere og utvikle egne tilvenningsrutiner. Bokens målgruppe er først og fremst ansatte i barnehagene og studenter på barnehagelærerutdanningen, samt alle andre som er opptatt av gode barnehager for de yngste barnehagebarna

Karlsen, Lisa & Lekhal, Ratib (2019)

Practitioner involvement and support in children’s learning during free play in two Norwegian kindergartens

Journal of Early Childhood Research, 17(3), s. 233- 246. Doi: 10.1177/1476718X19856390 - Full text in research archive

This research focuses on how practitioners in two Norwegian kindergartens interact with children during free play. The purpose of the study is to draw attention to the way the practitioners supported children’s learning through their interactions with children during free play. Through naturalistic observations of 17 practitioners, results revealed that while more than half of the day in both settings consisted of free play activities (60%), practitioners spent a significant amount of this time completely away from play situations (45.5% of free play). Of the remaining time, practitioners spent 34 percent of free playtime supporting children’s learning through joining in, commenting, instructing, or helping.

Van Trijp, Catharina Petronella Johanna & Lekhal, Ratib (2018)

Promoting children's well-being in ECEC: A challenging goal.

Journal of International Doctoral Research, 7(1), s. 30- 54.

The promotion of children’s development and well-being through high Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC), quality is one of the core concepts in many international ECEC quality frameworks and guidelines (Bagdi & Vacca, 2005; Sylva, Ereky-Stevens, & Aricescu, 2015). However, this goal has multiple challenges regarding children’s well-being. Firstly, there is a lengthy debate regarding the definition of well-being (Dodge, Daly, Huyton, & Sander, 2012), which mainly focused on adults’ well-being. Children’s well-being is underexposed (Røysamb, 2014). Secondly, children participate in different environments, such as at home and in ECEC centers (Bronfenbrenner, 1979), which might result in discrepancies regarding their well-being between these environments. This may be through the presence of protective and/or risk factors in the different environments, but also with regard to the individual child (AalbersVan Leeuwen, Van Hees, & Hermanns, 2002; Asscher, Hermanns, & Dekovic, 2008). The influence of these factors is dependent on the interplay between the child’s genes and the environment (Røysamb & Nes, 2018). These challenges and the large international political focus on children’s well-being in ECEC require a universal conceptual framework. The current study conducts a literature review regarding children’s well-being in ECEC. Based on this review, a new framework regarding zero-to-five-year olds’ well-being is presented. With this framework, organizational tools are provided for research, policies and practices to understand the complexity of children’s well-being, to develop instruments that measure well-being directly, and to see what is needed from the different environments to promote children’s well-being.

Lekhal, Ratib (2018)

Receiving extra support in Norwegian centre-based childcare: the role of children's language and socioemotional development

Early Child Development and Care, s. 1- 14. Doi: 10.1080/03004430.2018.1485671

This study adds to the current literature by examining how different developmental areas (language problems or externalizing and internalizing behaviour problems) affect the possibility of a child receiving extra support early in life. The data were drawn from an online survey of 2779 children in Norway conducted in 2015 and included information about children's development and on their background and family factors. There was a strong connection between children's development and the possibility of receiving special education. However, relatively large gender differences were found. Furthermore, only a fairly small proportion of the children characterized as having a problem with language or with internalizing or externalizing behaviour were detected and actually received any special education support.

Løken, Gro; Lekhal, Ratib & Haug, Peder (2018)

Observasjon av kjønnsforskjeller og forskjeller mellom spesialundervisning og ordinær opplæring i det tilrettelagte klasserommet

Smith, Kari (red.). Norsk og internasjonal lærerutdanningsforskning : hvor er vi? hvor vil vi gå? hva skal vi gjøre nå?

Lekhal, Ratib (2018)

Does special education predict students’ math and language skills?

European Journal of Special Needs Education, 33(4), s. 525- 540. Doi: 10.1080/08856257.2017.1373494 - Full text in research archive

A large number of children are today receiving special education in Norway. The high cost to society and possible long-term consequences for the students make it important to understand the interrelationship of the causes and effects related to receiving special education services. Unfortunately, at present there are only few rigorous studies of the effects of receiving special education services. This study examined the interrelationship between receiving special education services and students’ math and language skills in upper secondary school in Norway. Data from 2756 students in the large population-based special education study (SPEED) was used that included information from questionnaires on students’ development, learning environment and family background. Results showed that students receiving special education services had slightly lower scores on their language test but similar scores on their math test compared to the group of students not receiving special education services, when conservative methodological approaches were used to control for possible covariate bias.

Lekhal, Ratib (2017)

Elever med vedtak om spesialundervisning: Hva vet vi, hvordan har de det, og trives de på skolen?

Haug, Peder (red.). Spesialundervisning – Innhald og funksjon

Løken, Gro; Lekhal, Ratib & Haug, Peder (2017)

Lavt presterende elever og kjønnsforskjeller – hvem får og hvem får ikke spesialundervisning?

Haug, Peder (red.). Spesialundervisning – Innhald og funksjon

Faldet, Ann-Cathrin & Lekhal, Ratib (2016)

Voldelige jenters opplevelse av skolen som arena for læring og sosialt samspill

Spesialpedagogikk, 81(3), s. 51- 64.

Nordahl, Thomas; Sunnevåg, Anne-Karin, Qvortrup, Lars, Skov Hansen, Line, Hansen, Ole, Lekhal, Ratib & Drugli, May Britt (2016)

Hold ut og hold kursen. Resultater fra kartleggningsundersøkelse i Kristiansand Kommune 2015

Aalborg Universitetsforlag.

Lekhal, Ratib & Mælan, Ellen Nesset (2015)

Bokstaver, tall og geometriske figurer i barnehagen-preliminære resultater fra en pilotstudie i seks barnehager: En ny vurderingsmetode?

Cepra-striben - tidsskrift for Evaluering i Praksis, s. 22- 29.

Lekhal, Ratib (2015)

Er barnehage en risiko eller gevinst for barns utvikling?

Paideia, 10, s. 46- 55.

Lekhal, Ratib (2015)

What is the Best Way to Assess Quality in Childcare to Understand Its Influence on Children?

Journal of International Scientific Publications: Educational Alternatives, 13, s. 677- 683.

Aasen, Ann Margareth; Lekhal, Ratib, Drugli, May Britt & Nordahl, Thomas (2015)

Kjønnsforskjeller i skolefaglige prestasjoner - forklaringer i elevenes holdninger til og væremåte i skolen, samt relasjonelle forhold

Paideia, s. 76- 89.

Wang, Mari Vaage; Lekhal, Ratib, Aarø, Leif Edvard, Holte, Arne & Schjølberg, Synnve (2014)

The developmental relationship between language and motor performance from 3 to 5 years of age: a prospective longitudinal population study

BMC Psychology, 2 Doi: 10.1186/s40359-014-0034-3 - Full text in research archive

Holte, Arne; Barry, Margaret M., Bekkhus, Mona, Borge, Anne Inger Helmen, Bowes, Lucy, Casas, Ferran, Friborg, Oddgeir, Grinde, Bjørn, Headey, Bruce, Jozefiak, Thomas, Lekhal, Rabit, Marks, Nic, Muffels, Ruud, Nes, Ragnhild Bang, Røysamb, Espen, Thimm, Jens, Torgersen, Svenn, Trommsdorff, Gisela, Veenhoven, Ruut, Vittersø, Joar, Waaktaar, Trine, Wagner, Gert G., Wang, Catharina E., Wold, Bente & Zachrisson, Henrik Daae (2014)

Psychology of Child Well-Being

Ben-Arieh, Asher; Casas, Ferran, Frønes, Ivar & Korbin, Jill E. (red.). Handbook of child well-being : theories, methods and policies in global perspective

Lekhal, Ratib; Wang, Mari Vaage & Schjølberg, Synnve (2013)

Sammenhengen mellom barns deltakelse i norske barnehager og utviklingen av språk og atferd i tidlig barndom. Resultater fra Den norske mor- og barn-undersøkelsen

Holmseth, Sylvia (red.). Utdanning 2013 - fra barnehage til doktorgrad

Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric, Lekhal, Ratib & Toppelberg, Claudio O (2013)

Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems During Early Childhood in Norway

Child Development, 84(4), s. 1152- 1170. Doi: 10.1111/cdev.12040

Wang, Mari Vaage; Lekhal, Ratib, Aarø, Leif Edvard & Schjølberg, Synnve (2012)

Co-occuring development of early childhood communication and motor skills: results from a population-based longitudinal study

Child: Care, Health and Development, 40(1), s. 77- 84. Doi: 10.1111/cch.12003

Lekhal, Ratib (2012)

Do type of childcare and age of entry predict behavior problems during early childhood? Results from a large Norwegian longitudinal study

International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36(3), s. 197- 204. Doi: 10.1177/0165025411431409

Lekhal, Ratib; Soest, Tilmann M von, Wang, Mari Vaage, Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver & Schjølberg, Synnve (2012)

Norway's High-Quality Center Care Reduces Late Talking in High- and Low-Risk Groups

Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 33(7), s. 562- 569. Doi: 10.1097/DBP.0b013e3182648727

Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Lekhal, Ratib & Mykletun, Arnstein (2011)

Hva gjør barnehagene med barna?

Tidsskrift for Norsk Psykologforening, 48, s. 578- 581.

Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae, Wang, Mari Vaage, Schjølberg, Synnve & Von Soest, Tilmann (2011)

Does universally accessible child care protect children from late talking? Results from a Norwegian population-based prospective study

Early Child Development and Care, 181(8), s. 1007- 1019. Doi: 10.1080/03004430.2010.508558

Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Lekhal, Ratib & Schjølberg, Synnve (2010)

Barnehage og psykisk helse hos sped- og småbarn

Moe, Vibeke; Slinning, Kari & Hansen, Marit Bergum (red.). Håndbok i sped- og småbarns psykiske helse

Lekhal, Ratib (2008)

Atferdsprogrammet PALS i skolen

Vestre, Svein Egil & Beck, Christian Watkin (red.). Skolen i aftenlandet? Artikkelsamling med ukorrekte innfallsvinkler

Lekhal, Ratib (2015)

Norges viktigste jobb

Barnehage.no [Fagblad]

Lekhal, Ratib (2014)

Leker for livet

Kommunal rapport [Avis]

Hansen, Ole; Lekhal, Ratib, Nordahl, Thomas, Norlund, Anita, Persson, Bengt & Qvortrup, Lars (1)

Temanummer om synlig læring

Paideia [Kronikk]

Lekhal, Ratib; Nordahl, Thomas, Norlund, Anita, Persson, Bengt, Qvortrup, Lars & Hansen, Ole (1)

Målrettede indsatser og forbedringer i skole og dagtilbud

Paideia [Kronikk]

Lekhal, Samira; Slapø, Helena, Lekhal, Ratib & Drugli, May Britt (2019)

Kosthold og fysisk helse

[Non-fiction book]. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Lekhal, Ratib; Drugli, May Britt & Buøen, Elisabet Solheim (2019)

Små barns læring

[Non-fiction book]. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Drugli, May Britt & Lekhal, Ratib (2019)

4 faktorer som fremmer barns livsmestring

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. Utdanningsnytt.no

Drugli, May Britt & Lekhal, Ratib (2019)

4 faktorer som fremmer barns livsmestring

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. Første steg, s. 50- 53.

Van Trijp, Catharina Petronella Johanna & Lekhal, Ratib (2019)

The influence of ECEC quality on toddlers’ development and well-being in Norwegian ECEC. How to measure these concepts with instruments from the Thrive by 3 intervention?

[Academic lecture]. ICSEI Stavanger 2019.

Drugli, May Britt & Lekhal, Ratib (2018)

Livsmestring og psykisk helse

[Non-fiction book]. Cappelen Damm Akademisk.

Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae, Solheim, Elisabet, Moser, Thomas & Drugli, May Britt (2016)

Det ved vi om: Betydningen af kvalitet i dagtilbud

[Non-fiction book]. Dafolo A/S.

Lekhal, Ratib; Zachrisson, Henrik Daae, Solheim, Elisabet, Moser, Thomas & Drugli, May Britt (2016)

Barnehagen: Betydningen av kvalitet i barnehagen

[Non-fiction book]. Gyldendal Akademisk.

Lekhal, Ratib (2015)

Mental health problems and grades among minority children: Does high-quality school environment buffers the relationship?

[Academic lecture]. NERA - Nordic Educational Research Association.

Lekhal, Ratib (2015)

Evaluering av LP-modellen med hensyn til barns utvikling og læring i daginstitusjonene

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. LP-modellen.dk

Lekhal, Ratib (2014)

Relasjon mellom voksen og barn i barnehagen - hva kjennetegner barnehager med gode relasjoner?

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. LP-modellen.dk

Lekhal, Ratib; Løken, Gro & Knudsmoen, Hege (2014)

Students with behaviour problems in school. Preliminary results from our SPEED study

[Academic lecture]. NERA, SPEED symposium, inkludering.

Lekhal, Ratib & Vigmostad, Inger (2014)

Trivsel og kvalitet i barnehagen

[Report]. Høgskolen i Hedmark.

Engvik, Maria; Evensen, Laura Aniko, Gustavson, Kristin, Jin, Fufen, Johansen, Rune, Lekhal, Ratib, Schjølberg, Synnve, Wang, Mari Vaage & Aase, Heidi (2014)

Sammenhenger mellom barnehagekvalitet og barns fungering ved 5 år

[Report]. Folkehelseinstituttet.

Lekhal, Ratib; Kostøl, Anne Kristoffersen, Nordahl, Thomas, Sunnevåg, Anne-Karin, Løken, Gro, Vigmostad, Inger & Myhr, Lars Arild (2014)

Klasseledelse, lærerautoritet og læringsutbytte. En kvantitativ og kvalitativ evaluering av prosjektet: «Klasseledelse, lærerautoritet og læringsutbytte» i videregående opplæring, 2010–2013

[Report]. Høgskolen i Hedmark.

Hensikten med denne rapporten er å presentere den kvantitative og kvalitative kartleggingsundersøkelsen som er gjennomført i de sju skolene som har deltatt i utviklings- og forskningsprosjektet «Klasseledelse, lærerautoritet og læringsutbytte» (KLL). Formålet er å undersøke om endringsarbeidet som har blitt gjennomført i KLL-skolene har ført til positive endringer. Problemstillingene som ble undersøkt var følgende: • Hvilken endring og utvikling viser resultatene fra første til andre kartlegging på de ulike fokusområdene (Skolekultur, Undervisning, Elevenes motivasjon og arbeidsinnsats og Opplevelse atferdsproblematikk)? • Skiller KLL – skolene seg fra resten av skolene i fylkeskommunen når det gjelder elevenes gjennomstrømning og læringsutbytte? • Hvilke erfaringer er gjort av de ansatte på skolene i forhold til implementering og gjennomføring i prosjektet? Resultatene fra KLL viser en positiv utvikling for lærerne på samtlige fokus/temaområder med unntak av arbeid med faktoren fagsentrert undervisning (hverken positiv eller negativ). Også når det gjelder resultater på elevnivå viser KLLskolene positiv fremgang. Skolene viser en positiv utvikling på antall fraværsdager (nedgang) og andel elever som har fullført- og bestått videregående opplæring. Videre ser det ut som om det er store variasjoner i hvilke erfaringer de ansatte på skolene har gjort seg gjennom prosjektet, både når det gjelder positive og negative erfaringer. Vi vil understreke at denne studien ikke gir mulighet til å trekke kausale slutninger (det vil si årsakssammenhenger). Vi kan ikke se bort fra at endringen som har skjedd fra T1 til T2 (første og andre måling) kan skyldes andre årsaker vi ikke har kontroll over eller har målt i denne studien.

Ratib, Lekhal; Vartun, Marika, Gustavson, Kristin Brun, Helland, Siri Saugestad, Wang, Mari Vaage & Schjølberg, Synnve (2013)

Den norske mor og barn-undersøkelsen. Variasjon i barnehagekvalitet : beskrivelser fra første datainnsamling fra barnehagene

[Report]. Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt.

Vartun, Marika; Helland, Siri Saugestad, Wang, Mari Vaage, Lekhal, Ratib & Schjølberg, Synnve (2012)

Noen resultater fra Barnehageundersøkelsen: En barnehage preget av kompetanse og trivsel

[Popular scientific article]. Første steg, s. 32- 33.

Saugestad Helland, Siri; Varatun, Marika, Melkevik, Ole, Lekhal, Ratib & Schjølberg, Synnve (2012)

Barnehagen som arena for vekst og trivsel

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. Første steg, 2, s. 30- 34.

Varatun, Marika; Saugestad Helland, Siri, Wang, Mari Vaage, Lekhal, Ratib & Schjølberg, Synnve (2012)

En barnehage preget av kompetanse og trivsel

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. Første steg, 3, s. 32- 34.

Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric, Toppelberg, Claudio O & Lekhal, Ratib (2011)

Child Care Quantity and Early Childhood Aggression in a Large Norwegian Cohort.

[Academic lecture]. Paper symposium presentation. Biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development.

Lekhal, Ratib (2011)

The relation between child care and language development, Results from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

[Academic lecture]. Nordic Early Childhood Education and Care -Effects and changes.

Schjølberg, Synnve; Lekhal, Ratib, Vartun, Marika, Helland, Siri Saugestad & Mathiesen, Kristin Schjelderup (2011)

Barnepass fram til 18 måneder. Sammenhenger mellom barnepass fram til 18 måneder og språklige ferdigheter og psykisk fungering ved 5 år

[Report]. Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt.

Lekhal, Ratib (2009)

Barnehage og språkutvikling

[Academic lecture]. HIO/NOVA-arbeidsseminar.

Schjølberg, Synnve; Lekhal, Ratib, Wang, Mari Vaage, Zambrana, Imac Maria, Mathiesen, Kristin Schjelderup, Magnus, Per & Roth, Christine (2008)

Forsinket språkutvikling. En foreløpig oversikt basert på data fra Den norske mor og barn undersøkelsen

[Report]. Nasjonalt folkehelseinstitutt.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2013 University of Oslo Ph.D Dr. Philos.
2007 University of Oslo Master Cand.Ped.
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2016 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Associate professor
2013 - 2015 Hedmark University of Applied Sciences Associate professor
2012 - 2014 Norwegian Institute of Public health Researcher