Faculty Profile

Ivar Gaasland

Associate Professor - Campus Bergen

Publications

Asche, Frank; Cojocaru, Andreea-Laura, Gaasland, Ivar & Straume, Hans-Martin (2018)

Cod stories: Trade dynamics and duration for Norwegian cod exports

Journal of Commodity Markets Doi: 10.1016/j.jcomm.2017.12.002

In recent years, trade dynamics have been receiving increased attention, and the general literature indicates that commodities are different. In this paper, the duration of trade relationships for Norwegian export firms to various markets is investigated for six product forms of one commodity, cod. The results indicate that the duration of most trade relationships is very short, and shorter than what is normally reported in the literature. Still, the substantial variation in duration by product form and factors influencing it, indicates heterogeneous dynamics for each supply chain even for slight differences in the characteristics of a commodity. Moreover, the short duration of trade relationships in the supply chains for Norwegian cod indicates that they remain very traditional food supply chains, with few attempts at reducing transaction costs through vertical coordination or relationships.

Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2017)

Matforsyning og klimapolitikk

Samfunnsøkonomen, s. 39- 47. - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

Bøndene hevder at jordbruket må skjermes mot klimatiltak som rammer norsk matforsyning,målt ved selvforsyningsgraden. Ved å endre sammensetningen av jordbruksstøtten i favør av matvarer som forurenser lite i forhold til næringsinnhold, viser vi at klimagassutslippene fra norsk jordbruk kan kuttes mye, eksemplifisert ved 40%, uten at elvforsyningsgraden svekkes og samtidig som budsjettutgiftene kan reduseres kraftig. Politikkendringen vil i tillegg bringe kostholdet mer i retning av de offisielle kostrådene til Helsedirektoratet, som anbefaler at vi spiser mindre rødt kjøtt og mer planteprodukter og fisk. Resultatene gir støtte til synspunkter i grønn skattekommisjon om at klimautfordringene også må reflekteres i jordbrukspolitikken.

Gaasland, Ivar (2015)

Fisk og jordbruk - hvem definerer Norges interesser?

Melchior, Arne & Sverdrup, Ulf (red.). Interessekonflikter i norsk handelspolitikk / Arne Melchior og Ulf Sverdrup (redaktører)

Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2015)

Trade liberalization versus climate change policy for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture: Some insights from Norway

Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, 37(3), s. 418- 436. Doi: 10.1093/aepp/ppu038

Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2015)

Greenhouse gas abatement in Norwegian agriculture: costs or benefits?

EuroChoices, 14(2), s. 34- 40. Doi: 10.1111/1746-692X.12089

Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2015)

Greenhouse gas abatement in agriculture - Is there a conflict with food security?

EuroChoices, 14(1), s. 35- 41. Doi: 10.1111/1746-692X.12080

Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2014)

The trade-off between food production and greenhouse gas mitigation in Norwegian agriculture

Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 184, s. 59- 66. Doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.11.025

Gaasland, Ivar; Vårdal, Erling & Blandford, David (2013)

Extensification versus Intensification in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Agriculture: Insights from NorwaY

EuroChoices

Gaasland, Ivar (2012)

Oljesmurt jordbruk

Samfunnsøkonomen

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2012)

Anderledeslandet

Andersen, Peder; Henriksen, Ingrid, petersen, jørn henrik & Zobbe, Henrik (red.). Hvordan ser verden ud? 73 bidrag om økonomi, institutioner og værdier. Professor Niels Kærgård 70 år

Blandford, David; Brunstad, Rolf Jens, Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2011)

Optimal agricultural policy and PSE measurement: an asessment and application to Norway

Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, 6(2), s. 195- 217.

Gaasland, Ivar; Garcia, Roberto J. & Vårdal, Erling (2011)

Norway

Orden, David; Blandford, David & josling, tim (red.). WTO Disciplines on Agricultural Support: Seeking a Fair Basis for Trade

Vårdal, Erling; Blandford, David, Brunstad, Rolf Jens & Gaasland, Ivar (2010)

Optimal agricultural policy and PSE measurement: an assessment and application to Norway

Journal of International Agricultural Trade and Development, 6(2), s. 197- 220.

Blandford, David; Gaasland, Ivar, Garcia, Roberto & Vårdal, Erling (2010)

How effective are WTO disciplines on domestic support and market access for agriculture?

The World Economy, 33(11), s. 1470- 1485. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9701.2010.01298.x

A new round of trade negotiations under the World Trade Organization (WTO) was launched in 2001. One of the major aims of the Doha Development Round is to reduce agricultural protection and impose greater discipline on domestic agricultural subsidies, particularly those that are most trade distorting. In this article, we examine whether the proposed WTO modalities for agriculture will actually achieve this aim in the case of Norway. Norwegian agriculture, which accounts for less than one per cent of GDP and three per cent of domestic employment, is among the most heavily protected in the world (NILF, 2007). The OECD's producer support estimate for Norway was 62 per cent in 2008, the highest among the Organization's member countries (OECD, 2009). Norway has a complex system of farm subsidies involving deficiency payments, structural income support, acreage and headage payments, and a range of indirect supports. The system is buttressed by substantial import protection, which limits market access. Consequently, the extent to which Norway will have to change its agricultural support policies in response to new WTO disciplines provides an important indicator of how successful theese are likely to be.

Gaasland, Ivar (2009)

Agriculture versus fish - Norway in WTO

Food Policy, 34(4), s. 393- 397. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2009.02.005

Flåm, Sjur Didrik; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2009)

On deregulating food prices

Computational Economics, 34(3), s. 309- 322. Doi: 10.1007/s10614-009-9175-5

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2008)

Optimal provision of public goods: implications for support to agriculture

Multifunctionality in agriculture. Evaluating the degree of jointness, policy implications

Vårdal, Erling & Gaasland, Ivar (2007)

Vestlandsbonden som produsent av fellesgoder

Rusten, Grete; Iversen, Nina M. & Hem, Leif Egil (red.). Våronn med nye muligheter Ressurs- og opplevelsesbasert verdiskaping på vestlandsbygdene

Brunstad, Rolf Jens & Gaasland, Ivar (2006)

WTO og norsk jordbruk: Liv laga eller kroken på døra?

Økonomisk forum, 60(1), s. 37- 47.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2005)

Efficiency losses in milk marketing boards - the importance of exports

Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 31(2), s. 77- 97.

A milk marketing board (MMB) is a well known instrument for regulating the markets for dairy products. MMBs are based on price discrimination, and receipts from sales are pooled so that the farmers receive a single price adjusted for composition and quality. Using a numerical model, we find that the economic welfare cost of the Norwegian MMB, is as much as 26.3% of the milk production value. This computed cost is far larger than for the other countries with MMBs. The main reasons are that exports are a major ingredient of the Norwegian system, and that production costs are very high.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2005)

Efficiency losses in milk marketing boards - the importance of exports

Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 31(2), s. 77- 97.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2005)

Multifunctionality of agriculture: an inquiry into the complementarity between landscape preservation and food security

European Review of Agricultural Economics, 32(4), s. 469- 488.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2005)

Multifunctionality of agriculture: an inquiry into the complementarity between landscape preservation and food security

European Review of Agricultural Economics, 32(4), s. 469- 488.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2005)

Efficiency losses in milk marketing boards - the importance of exports

Nordic Journal of Political Economy, 31(2), s. 77- 97.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2001)

Deregulation of the Norwegian Market for Dairy Products

The Food Sector in Transition - Nordic Research Proceedings of NJF-seminar No. 313, June 2000

Vårdal, Erling; Brunstad, Rolf Jens & Gaasland, Ivar (2001)

Multifunctionality of agriculture: An inquiry into the complementarity between landscape preservation and food security

Vårdal, Erling (red.). Multifunctionality of Agriculture

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2001)

Deregulation of the Norwegian Market for Dairy Products

[Mangler etternavn], [Mangler fornavn] (red.). The Food Sector in Transition - Nordic Research Proceedings of NJF-seminar No. 313, June 2000

Vårdal, Erling; Brunstad, Rolf & Gaasland, Ivar (2000)

Deregulation of the Norwegian market for dairy products

The Food Sector in Transition - Nordic Research Procedings of NJF - seminar nr. 313

Vårdal, Erling; Brunstad, Rolf & Gaasland, Ivar (2000)

Deregulation of the Norwegian market for dairy products

The Food Sector in Transition - Nordic Research Procedings of NJF - seminar nr. 313

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1999)

Agricultural production and the optimal level of landscape preservation

Land Economics, 75(4), s. 538- 546.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1999)

Agricultural production and the optimal level of landscape preservation

Land Economics, 75(205), s. 538- 546.

It is often asserted that agricultural land yields significant amenity benefits that could be used as a rationale for some of the substantial support to agriculture occuring in many industrialized countries. This paper introduces a method for incorporating information on the willingness to pay for landscape preservation gained from contingent valuation studies in the objective function of a price-endogenous, mathematical programming model for the agricultural sector. Optimal levels of support, production, land use, and employment an then be calculated. The method is illustrated using data from Sweden and four U.S. Communities, and a programming model for the Norwegian agricultural sector.

Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1998)

Tariff or quota protection - A case study of the Norwegian apple market

Applied Economics, 30(Reprint), s. 951- 957.

Tariffs and quotas are alternative trade instruments. In most cases i t has been shown that the use of tariffs results in a higher national welfare the use of quotas. Most of the research in this field has be en purely theoretical. This paper aims to give an empirical contribut ion. Referring to the Norwegian apple market, we analyse the effects of tarrifs and quotas. A trariff system is estimated to be slightly m ore efficient than a quota system (+2%). However, the distributional effects are substantial. Wholesalers and importers are main gainers i n quota system, while consumers and farmers are losers.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1994)

Norges medlemsskapsavtale med EU på landbruksområdet

Sosialøkonomen, 48(7/8), s. 14- 21.

Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1994)

Prisstabilisering i jordbruket

Norsk Økonomisk Tidsskrift, 108, s. 173- 188.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (1994)

Inntekter, sysselsetting og omstillinger

Simonsen, Jesper W. (red.). Norsk landbruk og EU - hva kan forskerne si?

Gaasland, Ivar (2017)

Makten over melken

Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Gaasland, Ivar (2016)

Debatt om jordbruk Ytring NRK Radio

[Radio]

Gaasland, Ivar (2016)

Fremtidsbonden

NRK Ytring [Kronikk]

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2013)

Bondekannibalisme

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar, Mittenzwei, Klaus & Vårdal, Erling (2011)

Modeller i jordbruket

Nationen [Kronikk]

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2011)

Ti myter om jordbruk

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Gaasland, Ivar (1)

Eksportsubsidier - hva har vi lært?

Nationen [Kronikk]

Gaasland, Ivar; Vårdal, Erling & Blandford, David (2017)

Achieving GHG Emission Commitments and Food Security Objectives in Norwegian Agriculture

[Academic lecture]. XV EAAE Congress.

Gaasland, Ivar; Vårdal, Erling & Blandford, David (2016)

Now that the party’s over: achieving GHG emission commitments in Norwegian agriculture

[Academic lecture]. Vitenskapelig konferanse.

Vårdal, Erling; Blandford, David & Gaasland, Ivar (2012)

GHG emission abatement strategy in Norwegian agriculture

[Academic lecture]. Agriculture and greenhouse gases. NFJ seminar 453.

Vårdal, Erling & Gaasland, Ivar (2012)

Hvordan kutte utslippene fra jordbruket

[Popular scientific article]. Klima

Brunstad, Rolf Jens & Gaasland, Ivar (2007)

Proteksjonisme, fattigdom og norsk landbrukspolitikk

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. ?, s. 74- 83.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2001)

Agriculture as a provider of public goods

[Academic lecture]. Seminar on the multifunctionality of agriculture.

Brunstad, Rolf Jens; Gaasland, Ivar & Vårdal, Erling (2001)

Agriculture as a provider of public goods

[Academic lecture]. Seminar on the multifunctionality of agriculture.

Vårdal, Erling; Gaasland, Ivar & Brunstad, Rolf (1995)

Utvikling eller avvikling - jordbruket ved en skillevei

[Scientific book]. ad Notam Gyldendal.

At ressursbruken i forbindelse med jordbrukspolitikken tas opp til kr itisk vurdering, er absolutt på tide. Norge ligger i verdenstoppen nå r det gjelder støtte til jordbruket, og ressursbruken i jordbruket fo rtrenger andre viktige samfunnsoppgaver. En hovedårsak til de høye ko stnadene er de mange ambisiøse målene for jordbrukspolitikken. I Utvi kling eller avvikling - jordbruket ved en skillevei drøftes holdbarhe ten til de ulike argumentene som benyttes for å sikre jordbruket særv ilkår. Det konkluderes med at det stort sett bare er eksistensen av k ollektive goder som matvaresikkerhet og kulturlandskap som kan forsva re offentlige inngrep i jordbrukssektoren. Men målene knyttet til pro duksjon av kollektive goder gir ikke grunnlag for verken den formen e ller det nivået som jordbruksstøtten har i dag. De kollektive godene kan tilbys mye billigere til samfunnet og med en betydelig lavere pro duksjon, syssel setting og arealbruk enn i dag. Dette krever en kraft ig og hurtig omlegging av jordbrukspolitikken. I boken skisseres de n ødvendige skritt i riktig retning.

Vårdal, Erling; Gaasland, Ivar & Brunstad, Rolf (1994)

The transition of Norwegian agriculture to international market conditions: Consequences for landscape preservation

[Academic lecture]. Workshop on Agricultural Policy and the Cultural Landscape at H olmenkollen Park Hotel, NFR Prosject number 106815/720.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2010 University of Bergen PhD
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2016 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Associate professor
2014 - 2016 University of Bergen Associate professor
2011 - 2014 University of Bergen Assistant Professor
2008 - 2011 Centre for Applied Research (SNF) Senior researcher
1991 - 2008 Centre for Applied Research (SNF) Researcher