Employee Profile

Nick Sitter

Professor - Department of Law and Governance


Dr Nick Sitter (b. 1969) is Professor of Political Economy. He holds a Ph.D. from the London School of Economics and Political Science, Department of Government, on the development of competitive party systems in post-communist East Central Europe, and an M.Sc. and B.Sc. (econ) from the same institution.

He is also Professor of Public Policy at at the Central European University and a Research Associate at the LSE's Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation. Previous academic positions include lectureships at the American University, Florida State University and Reading University and a part-time teacher position at the LSE. Before completing his Ph.D. Nick Sitter worked as a political consultant in the oil and gas sector in London.

Research areas

Comparative European Politics
Political parties, party strategy, Euroscepticism, populism, the rule of law and democratic backsliding.

European Integration
European institutions, the Single Market, The EU and non-member states: Norway, the European Economic Area, Brexit.

Public Policy and Political Economy
Public administration, the regulatroy state, competition law, the international political economy of energy.

Political Violence and Strategic Studies
Natonalism, civil war, terrorism and counter-terrorism.


Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2022)

Whither the Liberal European Union Energy Model? The Public Policy Consequences of Russia’s Weaponization of Energy

CESifo Forum, 23(6), s. 4- 7.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2022)

Zwischen Notfallmaßnahmen und Strukturreformen: Wie den Energiemarkt zukunftsfähig gestalten?

ifo Schnelldienst, 75(12), s. 12- 15.

Der Ukraine-Krieg, Höchstpreise bei Gas und Strom und ein strukturell angespannter Markt für Flüssiggas (LNG) fordern das liberale EU-Energiemarktmodell im Kern heraus. Zwei zentrale Elemente fallen dabei zusammen. Zum einen sind die Politik-Antworten auf die Energiekrise zutiefst interventionistisch und entwickeln Pfadabhängigkeiten. Damit stellt sich die Frage, ob das liberale Paradigma, das die Marktintegration über die letzten Jahrzehnte kennzeichnete, im zukünftigen Marktdesign weiterhin zentrale Bedeutung hat. Zum anderen »versicherheitlicht« die Krise die Energietransition. Statt Klimapolitik treibt nun das Ziel der nationalen Sicherheit Erneuerbare und Dekarbonisierung. Was sind die Optionen für die EU? Dieser Beitrag argumentiert, dass ein Weg zurück zum etablierten, »liberalen« Modell unwahrscheinlich ist. Stattdessen bleibt die Wahl zwischen Gradskalen von »mehr Staat« in der europäischen Energie-Governance. Beide sind jedoch mit wichtigen Güterabwägungen verbunden.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2022)

Whither the Liberal European Union Energy Model? The Public Policy Consequences of Russia’s Weaponization of Energy

EconPol Forum, 23(6), s. 4- 8.

Key Messages • Energy is primarily a private good but also has public goods characteristics. The EU’s traditional strategy to cater the strategic goods element – energy security – was the liberal market model. • The Ukraine crisis has fundamentally put the liberal model in question. The present EU measures are deeply interventionist. • Renewables are elevated to matters of national interest. Combined with massive public funds, this accelerates the clean transition and is likely to put structural breaks into the incumbent energy system. • Going forward, the EU has three options: a return to the status quo ante (the liberal model); a more robust ‘public interest’ model accounting for the risk of high political costs; and a Colbertist model putting the state in charge of managing markets and the clean transition. • The Ukraine crisis highlights each model’s political and economic trade-offs. Policy priorities and strategies are revisited in light of these trade-offs. This is a watershed moment in European energy policy.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2022)

The EU Green Deal and economic competitiveness

Baltic Rim Economies

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2022)

Oil and gas

Seabrooke, Leonard & Pevehouse, Jon C. W. (red.). the Oxford Handbook of International Political Economy

This chapter reviews the IPE scholarship in energy over the last few decades. It shows that there is a deep divide between two dominant schools of thought in IPE energy research: the liberal school and the realist school. While there is relatively little interaction between the two schools, and very few ontological or epistemological debates, scholars from each school, some of the problems that have driven the main IPE energy research agendas increasingly blur the boundary between trade and security. Liberal energy policy debates have moved from a focus on trade to market failures related to security and climate change; while some realist scholarship increasingly incorporates trade and economic competition with a shift the from geopolitics of energy to the geo-economics of energy. The chapter outlines four broad issues that may force more engagement between the two schools, and that in any case point to how energy research may contribute to IPE as a discipline: the changing utility of power in international relations, the challenges associate with different types of global policy regimes, the rise of state-capitalist China and Russia in the context of an energy self-reliant USA, and the possible trend toward a fragmented post-globalized intentional order.

Bakke, Elisabeth & Sitter, Nick (2022)

The EU’s Enfants Terribles: Democratic backsliding in Central Europe since 2010

Perspectives on Politics, 20(1), s. 22- 37. Doi: 10.1017/S1537592720001292 - Full text in research archive

In the academic literature, Hungary and Poland are often cited as paradigmatic cases of democratic backsliding. However, as the backsliding narrative gained traction, the term has been applied to the rest of the post-communist region, including the Czech Republic and Slovakia. We suggest that this diagnosis is in part based on conceptual stretching, and set out to rescue the concept as an analytical tool. We then assess the extent of backsliding in the four Visegrád countries, explaining backsliding (and the relative lack of it) in terms of motive, opportunity, and the strength or weakness of opposing or constraining forces. We conclude that the situation is not as desperate as some commentators would have it: democratic backsliding in Hungary and Poland was contingent on a few exceptional factors, and EU leaders therefore need not be paralysed by the fear of contagion when they contemplate forceful action against backsliding member states.

Sitter, Nick (2021)

Defending the State: Nationalism, Geopolitics and Differentiated Integration in Visegrád Four Security Policy

European Foreign Affairs Review, 26, s. 127- 144. Doi: 10.54648/EERR2021030 - Full text in research archive

During the second half of the 2010s the governments of Poland and Hungary took a sharp turn away from liberal democracy and the rule of law. As they slipped down the international democracy rankings, the European Union initiated its procedures under Article 7 to investigate possible breaches of its fundamental laws and values. However, the two governments sought to distinguish between their conflict with the European Commission over the rule of law on one hand and their commitment to collective security on the other. The central question in this article is whether they managed to do this, and to what extent democratic backsliding poses security challenges for the EU by weakening its actorness in the field of security, defence and foreign policy. A comparative assessment of Poland, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic suggests that democratic backsliding does indeed have security implications for the EU, but that this is only one of several factors driving differentiated integration in the Visegrád Four in this field. Developments in the region are part of a wider EU trend of re-nationalization of security policy. Indeed, in the security field, vertical differentiated integration (in the sense of different mixes of supranational and intergovernmental regimes) is a key factor in mitigating the consequences of horizontal differentiation (different Member State policies).

Bakke, Elisabeth & Sitter, Nick (2021)

Each Unhappy in Its Own Way? The Rise and Fall of Social Democracy in the Visegrád Countries since 1989

Brandal, Nikolai; Bratberg, Øivind & Thorsen, Dag Einar (red.). Social Democracy in the 21st Century

It is often said that we live in a time of crisis for social democracy. Many of the West European centre-left parties that seemed the natural parties of government in the second half of the twentieth century are in decline. The most common long-term explanations centre on a shrinking working class, a widening gap between the party elite and their core voters, and the challenges from new populist parties and/or greens. Short-term policy factors include the failure to address the recent financial and refugee crises. None of these factors carry much explanatory weight for developments in Hungary, Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic in the three decades since the transition from communism. We find that much of the explanation for the rise and the fall of the five social democratic parties in these countries lies in the dynamics of party competition and party system change. All parties face dilemmas of policy, electoral appeal and coalition-building. The Central European cases suggest that it is how social democrats handle such challenges and make difficult choices about strategy and tactics that ultimately shapes their longterm fate. Centre-left parties are stronger masters of their fortunes than much of the literature on the decline of social democracy suggests. Consequently, seeking a common structural explanation for the rise and decline of social democratic parties might be a double fallacy: both empirically misleading and a poor base for policy advice.

Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2021)

Horses for courses. The roles of IPE and Global Public Policy in global energy research

Policy and Society: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Policy Research, 40(4), s. 467- 483. Doi: 10.1080/14494035.2020.1864100 - Full text in research archive

Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2020)

Power, authority and security: the EU’s Russian gas dilemma

Journal of European Integration, 42(1), s. 111- 127. Doi: 10.1080/07036337.2019.1708341 - Full text in research archive

This paper investigates contestation of authority in EU energy policy, with a focus on natural gas. It argues that the main challenge centers on the EU’s goals and means of energy security policy, not the location and scope of authority. The contested choice is between an across-the-board approach to regulation (Regulatory Power)- and a strategy that opens for the use of regulatory tools for geo-political purposes (Market Power). Competing claims of authority and competing views on how the European Commission should wield its regulatory power reflect both geography (North-Western versus (South-Eastern Europe) and the policy paradigm (market versus geo-politics). The Commission’s traditional strategy in energy policy – power-sharing and compromise – only works if there exists a consensus on the ultimate purpose of regulation. However, when the contested issue is whether the Commission should use is regulatory power to pursue market integration or geo-political goals, this presents a genuine policy dilemma.

Kissane, Bill & Sitter, Nick (2019)

National identity and constitutions in modern Europe: into the fifth zone

Landau, David & Lerner, Hanna (red.). Comparative Constitution Making

Sitter, Nick & Bakke, Elisabeth (2019)

Democratic Backsliding in the European Union

Thompson, William R. (red.). Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Politics

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2018)

Conceptualizing the Energy Nexus of Global Public Policy and International Political Economy

Goldthau, Andreas; Keating, Michael & Kuzemko, Caroline (red.). Handbook of the International Political Economy of Energy and Natural Resources

Andersen, Svein S & Sitter, Nick (2018)

The EU’s Strategy Towards External Gas Suppliers and Their Responses: Norway, Russia, Algeria and LNG

Godzimirski, Jakub M. (red.). New Political Economy of Energy in Europe. Power to Project, Power to Adapt

Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2018)

Regulatory or Market Power Europe? EU Leadership Models for International Energy Governance

Godzimirski, Jakub M. (red.). New Political Economy of Energy in Europe. Power to Project, Power to Adapt

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (2017)

An Odd Pro-Market Trio: Germany, the UK and Norway

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (red.). Energy Union: Europe's New Liberal Mercantilism?

Sitter, Nick & Van Hulten, Michiel (2017)

Something for Everyone: Political Fragmentation and Policy Accommodation in the European Parliament

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (red.). Energy Union: Europe's New Liberal Mercantilism?

Andersen, Svein S; Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2017)

From Low to High Politics? The EU’s Regulatory and Economic Power

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (red.). Energy Union: Europe's New Liberal Mercantilism?

Sitter, Nick (2017)

Terrorismens Historie: Attentat og terrorbekjempelse fra Bakunin til IS

Dreyer Forlag A/S.

Angrepene på regjeringskvartalet og Utøya 22. juli 2011 satte terrorisme og bekjempelse av terrorisme på dagsorden i Norge på en helt ny måte. Etter et tiår med fokus på Al-Qaida, var dette en sterk påminnelse om at terrorisme er et mangfoldig fenomen. I mer enn halvannet århundre har det vært en utfordring for demokratier å bekjempe denne formen for politisk vold. Moderne terrorisme begynte for alvor etter at Alfred Nobel oppfant dynamitten i 1867. Denne nye teknologien gjorde det mulig å drepe eller skade i et mye større omfang enn angrep med skytevåpen. Når dette ble kombinert med nye radikale ideologier og en kommunikasjonsrevolusjon i form av masseproduserte aviser, ble det mulig for små grupper å nå et stort publikum. Hovedtemaene i boken er hva som motiverer terrorister, hva terroristgrupper forsøker å oppnå, og ikke minst, hvordan terrorisme best kan bekjempes. Boken tar for seg en rekke eksempler fra Europa, USA, Sør-Afrika og Midtøsten for å belyse mangfoldet i terrorisme som strategi, så vel som styrker og svakheter med forskjellige måter å bekjempe terrorisme på. Nesten alle terrorister forsøker å provosere stater til å overreagere – men historien viser at det finnes smartere alternativer.

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (2017)

Energy Union: Europe's New Liberal Mercantilism?

Palgrave Macmillan.

Sitter, Nick (2016)

EUs konkurranserett og -politikk

Anderssen, Harald B & Bråthen, Tore (red.). Moderne Forretningsjus III

Parker, Tom & Sitter, Nick (2016)

The Four Horsemen of Terrorism: It's Not Waves, It's Strains

Terrorism and Political Violence, 28(2), s. 197- 216. Doi: 10.1080/09546553.2015.1112277

ARTICLE + three replies by Rapoport, Townshend and Kaplan). David Rapoport's concept of Four Waves of terrorism, from Anarchist terrorism in the 1880s, through Nationalist and Marxist waves in the early and mid-twentieth century, to the present Religious Wave, is one of the most influential concepts in terrorism studies. However, this article argues that thinking about different types of terrorism as strains rather than waves better reflects both the empirical reality and the idea that terrorists learn from and emulate each other. Whereas the notion of waves suggests distinct iterations of terrorist violence driven by successive broad historical trends, the concept of strains and contagion emphasizes how terrorist groups draw on both contemporary and historical lessons in the development of their tactics, strategies, and goals. The authors identify four distinct strains in total—Socialist, Nationalist, Religious, and Exclusionist—and contend that it is possible to trace each strain back to a “patient zero” active in the 1850s.

Andersen, Svein S; Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2016)

The EU Regulatory State, Commission Leadership and External Energy Governance

Godzimirski, Jakub M. (red.). EU Leadership in Energy and Environmental Governance: Global and Local Challenges and Responses

Andersen, Svein S & Sitter, Nick (2016)

Projecting the Regulatory State beyond the EU: Gas Markets and Energy Security

Peters, Ingo (red.). The European Union's Foreign Policy in Comparative Perspective: Evaluating and generating hypotheses on 'actorness and power'

Sitter, Nick (2015)

Terrorisme og demorkati

Malnes, Raino Sverre & Thorsen, Dag Einar (red.). Demokrati - historien og ideene

Sitter, Nick (2015)

What does EU Energy Policy Mean for the Climate

Stoknes, Per Espen & Eliassen, Kjell Arnold (red.). Science based activism. Festschrift to Jørgen Randers

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2015)

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World: The European Union Regulatory State and the Global Political Economy of Energy

Oxford University Press.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2015)

Soft Power with a Hard Edge: EU Policy Tools and Energy Security

Review of International Political Economy, 22(5), s. 941- 965. Doi: 10.1080/09692290.2015.1008547

International security debates surrounding the European Union (EU) energy supply challenge commonly invoke the need for more EU hard power – e.g. getting tough on Russia or engaging directly with other exporters. This article investigates whether what might be labelled ‘soft power with a hard edge’ instead amounts to a consistent policy strategy for the EU. The central argument is that the EU has turned a weakness into strength, and developed a set of tools that sharpen the way soft power is exercised in the energy sector. The article explores how soft power affects companies that ‘come and play’ on the EU market: the rules of the Single European Market (SEM) and how they affect external firms. It also assesses the long reach of the SEM: both the gravitational ‘pull’ the SEM exerts in the ‘near aboard’, and the EU's ‘push’ to facilitate the development of midstream infrastructure and upstream investment. The conclusion is that the EU regulatory state is emerging as an international energy actor in its own right. It limits the ways states like Russia can use state firms in the geopolitical game; and it exports its model into the near abroad, thus stabilizing energy supply and transit routes.

Andersen, Svein S & Sitter, Nick (2015)

Managing Heterogeneity in the EU: Using Gas Market Liberalisation to Explore the Changing Mechanisms of Intergovernmental Governance

Journal of European Integration, 37(3), s. 319- 334. Doi: 10.1080/07036337.2014.953947 - Full text in research archive

Bakke, Elisabeth & Sitter, Nick (2014)

Where do parties go when they die? The fate of failed parties in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary 1992–2013

East European Politics, 31(1), s. 1- 22. Doi: 10.1080/21599165.2014.959661

Goldthau, Andreas & Sitter, Nick (2014)

A liberal actor in a realist world? The Commission and the external dimension of the single market for energy

Journal of European Public Policy, 21(10), s. 1452- 1472. Doi: 10.1080/13501763.2014.912251

This article investigates the European Commission's external energy policy through the lens of the regulatory state. It argues that because of the nature of its institutions, policy tools and resources, the Commission remains a liberal actor even as the world leaves the benign pro-market environment of the 1990s and becomes more mercantilist – or ‘realist’. The article tests seven hypotheses related to two key challenges as perceived by the Commission: building energy markets, and making them work. It finds that the Commission seeks to project the single market beyond its jurisdiction to deal with transit infrastructure problems; extend international regimes to cover energy trade; deal with monopolists such as Gazprom through classical competition policy; and fix global energy market failures with clear regulatory state tools. Importantly, however, some actions by the Commission can be seen as an attempt to counterbalance external actors, or as second-best efforts to address energy market failures.

Sitter, Nick & Parker, Tom (2014)

Fighting Fire with Water: NGO and Counter-Terrorism Policy Tools

Global Policy, 5(2), s. 159- 168. Doi: 10.1111/1758-5899.12058

Sitter, Nick (2013)

The European Union, Energy Security and the Ukrainian October 2012 Election: Just another BRIC in the Wall?

Balázs, Péter; Mytryayeva, Svitlana & Zákonyi, Botond (red.). Ukraine at Crossroads: Prospects of Ukraine's Relations with the European Union and Hungary

Kissane, B. & Sitter, Nick (2013)

Ideas in Conflict: The Nationalism Literature and the Comparative Study of Civil War

Nationalism & Ethnic Politics, 19(1), s. 38- 57. Doi: 10.1080/13537113.2013.761884

Bakke, Elisabeth & Sitter, Nick (2013)

Why Do Parties Fail? Cleavages, Government Fatigue and Electoral Failure in the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary 1992–2012

East European Politics, 29(2), s. 208- 225. Doi: 10.1080/21599165.2013.786702

Sitter, Nick (2012)

The Nordic Countries: The Causes and Consequences of Variable Geometry

Hayward, Jack & Wurzel, Rüdiger (red.). European Disunion: Between Sovereignty and Solidarity

Sitter, Nick (2012)

Høyreekstremisme i Ungarn – demokrati i krise?

Sørensen, Øystein; Hagtvet, Bernt & Steine, Bjørn Arne (red.). Høyreeksstremisme: Ideer og bevegelser i Europa

Andersen, Svein S; Anker, Elisabeth, Hanstad, Dag Vidar & Sitter, Nick (2012)

Fra motspiller til medspiller : EU og norsk profesjonell fotball 1995-2010

Norsk Statsvitenskapelig Tidsskrift, 28(4), s. 213- 240.

I 1995 fastslo EU-domstolen at profesjonell fotball var en del av det indre marked. Dette førte til sterke negative reaksjoner fra fotballklubber og -forbund i hele Europa. Bosmandommen presset samtidig EU-kommisjonen til å klargjøre fotballens status som kommersiell aktivitet. De tre mest sentrale temaene var ordningene for spillernes overgang mellom klubber, kvoter for utenlandske spillere, og salg av medierettigheter. I denne artikkelen ser vi på norske reaksjoner på dommen, og utviklingen av et nytt regime for profesjonell fotball i de påfølgende år. Den første reaksjonen fra norsk fotball var at EUs krav utgjorde en trussel. Den videre utviklingen ble imidlertid preget av en dialog mellom EU-kommisjonen og UEFA. Denne prosessen førte frem til et kompromiss som ivaretok både EUs konkurranseregler og verdier som står sentralt i norsk og europeisk fotball. Norsk representasjon i UEFAs ledelse ga nasjonale fotballaktører informasjon og innsikt i lokale tilpasningsmuligheter. Artikkelen illustrerer en form for europeisering preget av gjensidig tilpasning som har fått relativt lite oppmerksomhet i studier av europeisering.

Sitter, Nick (2012)

The awkward subject? : the study of European Union politics in the UK and Ireland

Eliassen, Kjell Arnold & Bindi, Federiga (red.). Analyzing European Union Politics

Sitter, Nick (2011)

A magyar pártszerkezet 2010-ban: polarizáltabb, kevésbé plurális” [The Hungarian Party System in 2010]

Enyedi, Zsolt; Szabo, Andrea & Tardos, Robert (red.). Ùj képlet: A 2010-es választások Magyarországon

Sitter, Nick (2011)

Absolute power? Hungary twenty years after the fall of communism

Bakke, Elisabeth & Peters, Ingo (red.). 20 Years since the Fall of the Berlin Wall. Transitions, State Break-Up and Democratic Politics in Central Europe and Germany

Welle-Strand, Anne; Kjøllesdal, Kristian & Sitter, Nick (2010)

Assessing Microfinance: The Bosnia and Herzegovina Case

Managing Global Transitions, 8(2), s. 145- 166.

Kissane, B. & Sitter, Nick (2010)

The marriage of state and nation in European constitutions

Nations and Nationalism, 16(1), s. 49- 67.

Bale, Tim; Green-Pedersen, Christoffer, Krouwel, André, Luther, Kurt Richard & Sitter, Nick (2010)

If You Can't Beat Them, Join Them? Explaining Social Democratic Responses to the Challenge from the Populist Radical Right in Western Europe

Political Studies, 58(3), s. 410- 426. Doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.2009.00783.x

Sitter, Nick (2009)

To structure political conflict : the institutionalization of referendums on European integration in the Nordic countries

Schiller, Theo & Setälä, Maija (red.). Referendums and representative democracy : responsiveness, accountability and deliberation

Andersen, Svein S. & Sitter, Nick (2009)

The European Union gas market : differentiated integration and fuzzy liberalization

Fermann, Gunnar (red.). Political economy of energy in Europe: forces of integration and fragmentation

Sitter, Nick (2008)


Elisabeth Bakke, Einar Berntzen og Knut Heidar (red), Politikk i Europa: Partier, regjeringsmakt, styreform

Sitter, Nick & Batory, Agnes (2008)

Protectionism, Populism or Participation? Agrarian Party Strategy and the Contestation of European Union Membership

P. Taggart & A. Szczerbiak (eds), Opposing Europe? The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism

Sitter, Nick (2008)

The European Question and the Norwegian Party System since 1961: The freezing of a modern cleavage or contingent opposition?

P. Taggart & A. Szczerbiak (eds), Opposing Europe? The Comparative Party Politics of Euroscepticism

Henderson, Karen & Sitter, Nick (2008)

Political Developments in the EU Member States

Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(Annual Review)

Henderson, K. & Sitter, Nick (2007)

Political Developments in the EU Member States, 2006

Journal of Common Market Studies, 45(September, Supplemen), s. 183- 211.

Cincera, Patrizia & Sitter, Nick (2007)

EU competition policy and the transition to a more competitive communications industry

K. A. Eliassen & J. From, The Privatization of European Telecommunications

Sitter, Nick & Bakke, Elisabeth (2006)

Østutvidelsen - Sentral-Europa, Baltikum og EU

E. Bakke (ed.), Sentral-Europa og Baltikum etter 1989

Sitter, Nick & Sørensen, Rune J. (2006)

Fiscal Federealism and Political Competition in the enlarged European Union: the Old Man's Burden?

Europe's Nascent State: Public Policy in the European Union, Essays in Honour of Kjell A. Eliassen , J. From & N. Sitter (eds)

Sitter, Nick (2006)

Gel du débat partisan ou opposition ponctuelle? La question européenne en Norvège

D. Reynié (ed.), L'opinion européenne 2006

Sitter, Nick & Henderson, K. (2006)

Political Developments in the EU Member States

Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, s. 171- 198.

Sitter, Nick & Batory, Agnes (2006)

Europe and the Hungarian Elections of April 2006

EPERN Election Briefings

Andersen, Svein S. & Sitter, Nick (2006)

Differentiated Integration: What Is It and How Much Can the EU Accommodate?

Journal of European Integration, 28(4), s. 313- 330.

Sitter, Nick (2006)

Norway's Storting Election of September 2005: Back to the Left?

West European Politics, 29(3), s. 573- 580. - Full text in research archive

Sitter, Nick (2005)

The Norwegian General Election of 12 September 2005

Sussex European Institute EPERN Election Briefings

Sitter, Nick (2005)

European Organisations: From Negotiated Design to Overlapping Competencies and Quasi-Membership

M. P. van der Hoek (ed.), Handbook on Public Policy and Administration in the EU

Sitter, Nick & Kissane, B. (2005)

Civil Wars, Party Politics and the Consolidation of Regimes in Twentieth Century Europ

Democratization, 12(2), s. 183- 201.

Sitter, Nick & Eliassen, Kjell A. (2004)

The Quiet European: Norway?s Quasi-Membership of the European Union

P.Magnette (ed.): La Grande Europe

Batory, Agnes & Sitter, Nick (2004)

Cleavages, competition and coalition-building: Agrarian parties and the European question in Western and East Central Europe

European Journal of Political Research, 43(4), s. 523- 546.

Sitter, Nick (2003)

Cleavages, Party Strategy and Party System Change in Europe East and West

P. Lewis & P. Webb (eds.): Pan-European Perspective on Political Parties

Eliassen, Kjell A.; Sitter, Nick & Monsen, Catherine Børve (2003)

The Governance of Telecommunications in the European Union

M. Campanella & S. Eijffinger (eds.): EU Economic Governance and Globalization

Sitter, Nick (2003)

Euro-Scepticism as Party Strategy: Persistence and Change in Party-Based Opposition to European Integration

?, 32(3), s. 239- 252.

Eliassen, Kjell A. & Sitter, Nick (2003)

Ever Closer Cooperation? The Limits of the ‘Norwegian Method’ of European Integration

Scandinavian Political Studies, 26(2), s. 125- 144.

Sitter, Nick (2002)

Ungarn – stabilisering gjennom konkurranse

E. Bakke (red): Politisk utvikling i Sentral-Europa og Baltikum siden 1989

Sitter, Nick (2002)

Cleavages, Party Strategy and Party System Change in Europe East and West

Perspectives on European Politics and Society, 3(3), s. 425- 451.

Sitter, Nick (2002)

When is a Party System? A System’s Perspective on the Development of Competitive Party Systems in East Central Europe

Central European political science review, 3(7), s. 75- 96.

Andersen, Svein S.; Eliassen, Kjell A. & Sitter, Nick (2001)

Formal processes : EU institutions and actors

Making policy in Europe/Svein Andersen og Kjell Eliassen (eds.)

Sitter, Nick (2001)

Beyond class vs nation? Cleavage structures and party competition in Central Europe

Central European political science review, 2(3), s. 67- 91.

Sitter, Nick (2001)

The politics of opposition and european integration in Scandinavia : is euro-scepticism a government-opposition dynamic?

West European Politics, 24(4), s. 22- 39.

Sitter, Nick & Eyre, Sebastian (1999)

From PTT to NRA: Towards a New Regulatory Regime in Europe

Eliassen, Kjell A. & Sjøvaag, Marit (red.). European Telecommunications Liberalisation

Sitter, Nick (2022)

Viktor Orban fikk fire nye år ved makten. Dermed beholder Putin en viktig støttespiller

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick (2022)

Det energipolitiske trusselbildet i Europa er nå helt endret

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick (2022)

EUs avhengighet av russisk gass er overdrevet

Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Opdahl, Ingerid Maria & Sitter, Nick (2022)

Krigsfrykt løfter strømprisen

Dagens Næringsliv [Avis]

Sitter, Nick (2020)

Podcast: Nick Sitter om Ungarn under korona

Agendamagasin.no [Internett]

Sitter, Nick (2020)

EU har en demokrati- og rettsstatskrise i tillegg til koronakrisen

Aftenposten (morgenutg. : trykt utg.) [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick (2018)

Backsliding in the European Union

LSE blog [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick (2018)

Democratic Backsliding and Illiberal Democracy in the EU – a twelve-point checklist

LSE blog [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Metodieva, Asya (2018)

Sleepless in Sofia: Can Bulgaria save Poland from Article 7?

LSE blog [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Bakke, Elisabeth (2018)

The Czech Presidential Election and Europe’s Populism Crisis

LSE blog [Kronikk]


Sitter, Nick & Lodge, Martin (2018)

The Polish Question and the EU’s Illiberal Populism Dilemma

LSE blog [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Sverdrup, Ulf (2018)

Resolving Brexit

NUPI Policy Brief [Kronikk]

Brexit is in crisis. The options are limited, and they have not changed much since 2016. Now, time is running out. Exiting the EU without an agreement, widely recognized as the worst option, is the default. Moreover, this is no longer simply a question about how to deal with the EU. Brexit is a test of whether a democratic political system can resolve difficult and divisive issues in a credible and robust way. The stakes are therefore high. Themes Europe The EU Diplomacy International organizations Researchers Ulf Sverdrup Director BI Nick Sitter Professor, BI Norwegian Business School Events Fri 25 Jan 2019 Europe through the Russian TV lens Time: 09:00 Location: NUPI What images of Europe does Russian TV convey to its viewers? What are the dominant Russian media narratives on Europe? Wed 6 Feb 2019 Chinese cyber security and consequences for Europe All events about Europe, the eu, diplomacy, international organizations (total 4) There is now a genuine risk that the political system in the UK tears itself apart, or at least inflicts deep and lasting scars on itself, and ends up with a solution that very few would prefer. As long as Brexit is exclusively a Conservative project, or even exclusively Theresa May’s project, this impasse is unlikely to be broken. What to do? The most obvious way of moving beyond the present stalemate is to establish a cross-party task force. Se full tekst. https://www.nupi.no/en/News/ANALYSIS-Resolving-Brexit or https://www.bi.edu/research/business-review/articles/2019/01/resolving-brexit/

Sitter, Nick (2015)

Faren over. Foreløpig. (Valget i Storbritannia)

Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Parker, Tom (2015)

Se opp for terror-fellen

Forskning.no [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Hix, Simon (1)

Svexit or Huxit? How another country could follow the UK out of the EU

LSE blog [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick & Lodge, Martin (1)

Backsliding as new transboundary crisis for the European Union

Risk and Regulation [Kronikk]

Kissane, B. & Sitter, Nick (1)

National identity and constitutionalism in Europe: Introduction

Nations and Nationalism [Kronikk]

Sitter, Nick (2022)

European energy politics and security after Russia’s invasion of Ukraine

[Popular scientific article]. Uk in a changing Europe

The war in Ukraine is not about energy, but it is having a big impact on European energy politics. EU energy policy has always had a security dimension, but until recently this took third place behind the goals of building a single energy market and combating climate change. With Russia’s invasion, energy politics and security is back at the top of the EU’s agenda

Sitter, Nick (2022)

Prospects for European energy security

[Academic lecture]. The war in Ukraine and the future European security order.

Sitter, Nick & Stenersen, Anne (2022)


[Popular scientific article]. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven)

Sitter, Nick (2021)


[Popular scientific article]. Store Norske Leksikon (Nettutgaven)

Sitter, Nick; Batory, Agnes, Zentai, Violetta & Krizsan, Andrea (2017)

Backsliding in area of constitutional safeguards and independent institutions, corruption control, and general equality and minorities

[Report]. TransCrisis.

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (2017)

Conclusion: Liberal Mercantilism?

Sitter, Nick; Andersen, Svein S & Goldthau, Andreas (red.). Energy Union: Europe's New Liberal Mercantilism?

Sverdrup, Ulf & Sitter, Nick (2015)

The new geopolitics of energy - Can G20 close the governance gap?

[Academic lecture]. T20 Summit Turkey, The Challenges of Global Governance and Macroeconomic Cooperation.

The G20 has a history of managing global economic crises. The world economy is now facing a radically new international political economy of energy, which is likely to have severe implications for economic growth and political stability. Few countries will be unaffected, but the effects will be distributed unevenly. Energy security issues, from volatile prices in the global oil market to disruptions of gas supplies in regional markets, potentially undermine the conditions for long term sustainable growth. Compared to other areas in international affairs, energy is poorly coordinated. We therefore face paradoxical situation: On the one hand, we observe an increased need for some kind of coordination and cooperation in the field of energy, but on the other hand, because there are multiple actors in the field with mixed interests, preferences, competencies and functions, the capability for international governance is limited.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2013)

A Liberal Actor in a Realist World?

[Academic lecture]. IPSA XXII World Congress of Political Science.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2013)

Soft Power with a Hard Edge: European Union Energy Policy and the Near Abroad

[Academic lecture]. FP7 GR:EEN Case Study Integrity Forum.

Sitter, Nick & Goldthau, Andreas (2013)

Soft Power with a Hard Edge: EU Policy Tools and Energy Security

[Academic lecture]. 3RD GR:EEN ANNUAL CONFERENCE.

Sitter, Nick (2013)


Bakke, Elisabeth; Berntzen, Einar & Heidar, Knut (red.). Politikk i Europa: Partier, regjeringsmakt, styreform (2. utgave)

Sitter, Nick & Parker, Tom (2012)

Fighting Fire with Water: NGO and Counter-Terrorism Policy Tools

[Academic lecture]. FP7 GR:EEN Case Study Integrity Forum on European Public Policy and Governance.

Sitter, Nick (2011)

The Study of European Union Politics in the UK and Ireland

[Report]. Centre for European Union Research, CEU.

Sitter, Nick (2010)

Making coalition politics work in a harsh climate

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. British Politics Review, 5(4)

Sitter, Nick (2009)

Europe and the Norwegian General Election of 14 September 2009”, EPERN Election Briefings, No.48, Sussex European Institute/The Royal Institute of International Affairs

[Report]. The Royal Institute of International Affairs.

Sitter, Nick (2009)

The Limits of the EU Regulatory State: Power, Politics and Pragmatism in European Gas Markets

[Academic lecture]. EUSA Eleventh Biennial International Conference 2009.

Eliassen, Kjell A. & Sitter, Nick (2008)

Understanding Public Management

[Textbook]. Sage Publications.

Sitter, Nick (2006)

Free to Choose? Party Politics and the Road to European Referendums in the Nordic Countries

[Report]. BI Norwegian School of Management.

Sitter, Nick & Kissane, B. (2006)

The Comparative Study of Civil War: Toward a Dynamic Model

[Report]. BI Norwegian School of Management.

Sitter, Nick & From, Johan (2006)

Europe's Nascent State: Public Policy in the European Union, Essays in Honour of Kjell A. Eliassen

[Scientific book]. Gyldendal Akademisk.

Sitter, Nick & Eliassen, Kjell A. (2003)

Norges deltakelse i Schengen Samarbeidet: vurderinger og anbefalinger

[Report]. Handelshøyskolen BI.

Sitter, Nick (2002)

Opposing Europe: Euro-Scepticism, Opposition and Party Competition

[Report]. Opposing Europe Research Network Working Paper.

Eliassen, Kjell A.; Monsen, Catherine Børve & Sitter, Nick (2002)

From Sector Regulation to Competition? The Changing Governance of Telecommunications in the European Union

[Report]. Handelshøyskolen BI.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
1999 London School of Economics and Political Science Ph.D.
1991 London School of Economics Master of Science
1990 London School of Economics Bachelor
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2009 - Present LSE Centre for Analysis of Risk and Regulation Research Associate
2008 - Present Central European University Professor
2005 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Professor
2000 - 2004 BI Norwegian Business School Associate Professor
1999 - 2000 Central European University Assistant Professor
1997 - 1999 American University, London Semester Programme Lecturer
1996 - 1997 Kingston University, Dep of History Lecturer
1993 - 1997 The London School of Economics and Political Science Part-time Teacher
1995 - 1996 University of Reading, Dep of International Relations Lecturer