Adjunct Professor - Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour
Lim, Wilson; Furnham, Adrian & McClelland, Alastair (2021)
Investigating the effects of background noise and music on cognitive test performance in introverts and extraverts: A cross-cultural study
Psychology of Music Doi: 10.1177/03057356211013502
Previous research found that introverts performed worse than extraverts on cognitive tasks in the presence of noise or music in a Western sample but not in an Asian sample. This is a cross-cultural part replication of these studies using a Western (British; N = 45) and Asian (Singaporean; N = 45) sample. Participants engaged in three cognitive tests in the presence of pop songs, background noise, and in silence. It was predicted that for British participants, introverts would perform worse than extraverts on all three tasks in the presence of background sounds, and performance would be worse in the presence of background sounds than in silence, but not for the Singaporean participants. The results did not show any performance differences between the background sound conditions for any of the tests across the two samples, nor any performance differences between extraverts and introverts across the background sound conditions, with three exceptions: extraversion for the British was a significant predictor of performance on the Raven’s test in the silence condition, extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for both groups on the mental arithmetic task in the silence condition, and extraversion was a significant predictor of performance for Singaporeans on the mental arithmetic task in the music condition.
Swami, Viren; Horne, George & Furnham, Adrian (2021)
COVID-19-related stress and anxiety are associated with negative body image in adults from the United Kingdom
Personality and Individual Differences, 170 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110426
The stress and anxiety caused by the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic presents a serious threat to psychological well-being in populations worldwide and may also extend to body image outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a preliminary study in which an online sample of adults from the United Kingdom (N = 506, age M = 34.25 years) were asked to complete measures of perceived stress, stressful life events, trait anxiety, COVID-19-related stress and anxiety, and negative body image (body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in women, body fat and muscularity dissatisfaction in men). The results of hierarchical regressions indicated that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety explained significant incremental variance in body image outcomes (Adj. ΔR2 = .02 to .10), over-and-above demographics (age and body mass index) and perceived stress, trait anxiety, and stressful life events. These findings suggest that COVID-19-related stress and anxiety may shape body image outcomes under conditions of physical and social distancing.
Lawrence, Helena; Furnham, Adrian & McClelland, Alastair (2021)
Sex Does Not Sell: Effects of Sexual Advertising Parameters on Women Viewers’ Implicit and Explicit Recall of Ads and Brands
Perceptual and Motor Skills, 128(2), s. 692- 713. Doi: 10.1177/0031512521990352
This study investigated implicit and explicit memory effects of sexual and non-sexual advertisements embedded in either a sexual or non-sexual program among women viewers. We predicted that sexual appeals would facilitate implicit memory for the brand, and we explored whether program-type (sexual or non-sexual) and its associated congruity would impact or moderate recall of the surrounding advertisement among a small sample (n = 52) of exclusively women advertisement viewers. Sexual (versus non-sexual) advertising led to significantly worse implicit memory for the brand logo but better explicit recall for the advertisement scene itself. There was no effect of sexual appeals on explicit brand name recall, and no significant effect on advertisement recall of the program type. There was a significant interaction effect for program type and advertisement type for explicit recall of the advertisement scene, in which program-type moderated sexual advertisement recall. These results suggest that sexual advertising may increase memory for the advertisement at the expense of recalling the brand advertised. Limitations and implications of this study are discussed.
Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2021)
The Dark Triad, emotional intelligence, self-monitoring and executive coach effectiveness and satisfaction
Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice Doi: 10.1080/17521882.2021.1881575
In all 545 executive coaches completed a number of tests online which assessed their dark-triad, trait emotional intelligence, self-monitoring traits as well as measures of perceived career satisfaction and perceived coaching effectiveness. We tested twelve hypotheses concerning direct and mediated effects of the three individual difference variables on the two outcome variables. Emotional intelligence and Narcissism were most closely related to self-rated efficacy while Machiavellianism and Psychopathy was most closely associated with career satisfaction. Limitations and implications are noted as well as recommendations for practice.
Furnham, Adrian; MacRae, Ian & Tetchner, Jessica (2021)
Measuring work motivation: The facets of the work values questionnaire and work success
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 62(3), s. 401- 408. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12723
The current study investigates the factor structure of the Work Values Questionnaire (WVQ) which measures how important each of 44 different features of a job are to the respondent. Over 750 international working professionals, primarily from the UK, completed a survey which included the WVQ, and measures of self-perceived success. Factor analysis (both exploratory and confirmatory) was conducted to extract factors and facets. Structural equation modeling was used to compare model fit, and the extracted facets were regressed on subjective work success. The results show that the scales fit a coherent and interpretable model with two factors and six facets, fitting an intrinsic–extrinsic factorial structure, consistent with previous research. Work values and demographics accounted for between 13% and 17% of the variance in subjective work success. Three facets were significant predictors of work success: the intrinsic facets Affiliation and Recognition were positive predictors, and the extrinsic facet Security was a negative predictor, of perceived work success. Limitations and implications of this research are considered.
Furnham, Adrian & Treglown, Luke (2021)
The Dark Side of High-Fliers: The Dark Triad, High-Flier Traits, Engagement, and Subjective Success
Frontiers in Psychology, 12 Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.647676
The aim of this study was to understand the relationship between bright-side, High Potential and dark-side Dark Triad traits, as well as work engagement on judgements of perceived success. In all, 290 working adults completed questionnaires assessing their High Potential Personality Traits (HPTI), their dark-triad traits, job engagement and self-rated success at work. The data showed that the three dark-triad traits (Narcissism, Psychopathy, Machiavellianism) were systematically and significantly correlated with High Potential traits Adjustment/neuroticism, Tolerance of Ambiguity and Conscientiousness. Three HPTI traits, namely curiosity, Conscientiousness, and courage, were systematically positively correlated with all three engagement measures. Narcissism was strongly related to all measures of engagement. Those with higher scores Adjustment, Courage, and Narcissism and of the male sex, rated their success highest. Job engagement mediated between high-flier and dark-side traits and success ratings. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Horne, George (2021)
Myths and misconceptions about intelligence: A study of 35 myths
Personality and Individual Differences, 181 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111014
This study is concerned with the extent to which people believe in, and endorse, various myths about intelligence and intelligence testing. It examined the prevalence of myths about intelligence as set out in a recent book (Warne, 2020). Participants (N = 275) completed a questionnaire in which they rated the extent to which they thought various statements/facts about intelligence were essentially true or false. In all, eighteen of these myths were rated as true (definitely or partly), two as definitely false and six probably false by the majority of the participants. There were no significant demographic or personality correlates of the total correct score (determined by rating the myth as false). The discussion considers why, in this important area of psychology, myths, misconceptions and ignorance seem so difficult to dispel. Limitations of this, and similar, studies are noted, and implications are discussed.
Martinsen, Øyvind Lund; Furnham, Adrian, Grover, Simmy, Arnulf, Jan Ketil & Horne, George (2021)
Dark- and bright-side reactions to government advice about Covid-19, and a test of a method to moderate such reactions
Personality and Individual Differences, 181 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.111016
The aim of this paper was to study how individual differences in personality shape reactions to authorities' health advice during the COVID-19 pandemic and how such reactions can be modified. Three studies, with between 249 and 407 participants, investigated this. Study 1 used a longitudinal design, and included measures of personality (NEO-FFI3, SCATI), political orientation, age and gender as predictors of reactions toward COVID-19 advice and regulations. Studies 2 and 3 were randomised experiments testing effects of principles for behaviour modification on such reactions. In study 1, we found that being female, older, or having liberal political views, as well as neuroticism, agreeableness and conscientiousness in the higher ranges, were associated with constructive reactions. Externalising personality disorders were related to opposite reactions. In study 2, we found that the experimental instructions had a significant positive impact on such reactions. These results were replicated in study 3. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Treglown, Luke (2021)
Bright and Dark-Side Traits Associated With Interests in Commerce vs Science: Different Personality Profiles of the Scientist-Practitioner
Psychological Reports Doi: 10.1177/00332941211002134
This study focused on the idea that there are predictable differences between those individuals who opt for Scientific rather than the Commerce/Practitioner jobs and consulting assignments. A total of 2278 adults from a variety of occupations completed three validated questionnaires: the first assessed the behavioural tendency of an individual when one is exposed to stress and which could derail one’s business career (HDS: Hogan Development Survey); the second the values and preferences that indicate work motivation (MVPI: The Motives, Values and Preferences Inventory), and the third, seven bright-side personality factors (HPI: Hogan Personality Inventory). The MVPI measured interests in scientific and commercial/enterprising activities. Correlations, regressions and SEM indicated both similarities and differences in the relationship between personality traits and values. Bright-side personality traits accounted for more the variance for those interested in Science while dark-side traits accounted for more variance for those interested in the Commerce. The biggest difference occurred in Inquisitiveness (Curiosity, Openness to Experience) which was much higher for those interested in science. Implications for personnel selection, job-fit and promotion were discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Horne, George (2021)
The Tetradic Heart of Darkness: Comparing three dark-side instruments
Personality and Individual Differences, 179 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2021.110918
In this two-study paper we examined three dark-side measures: the short Dark Tetrad measuring four dark-side traits; the SCATI measuring 14 personality disorders (PDs) and the SAPAS a single item measure for each disorder. The first study (N = 502) looked specifically at the new Dark Tetrad. Over 500 British Adults completed it and a confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the Tetrad factor structure. There were large sex differences in half of the items. We also examined demographic, ideological and self-rated correlates which showed ratings of political beliefs and self-rated attractiveness associated with different traits. The second study (N = 273) looked at the correlations between the three measures and the overlap between self-report tests of the same trait. All four of the Tetrad traits correlated with over half of the PDs. We found the highest correlation between the two scores of Narcissism, but that the single measure most associated with Borderline, Depressive and Dependent PD. The discussion considers the use of different clinical and sub-clinical instruments which measure the same variables.
Swami, Viren; Todd, Jennifer, Stieger, Stefan, Furnham, Adrian, Horne, George & Tylka, Tracy L. (2021)
Body acceptance by others: Refinement of the construct, and development and psychometric evaluation of a revised measure – The Body Acceptance by Others Scale-2
Body image, 36, s. 238- 253. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.11.007
The Body Acceptance by Others Scale (BAOS) measures the degree to which individuals perceive body acceptance by others, but its factor structure is questionable. Here, we developed a revision of the BAOS (i.e., the BAOS-2) by designing novel items reflective of generalised perceptions of body acceptance by others. In three studies, we examined the psychometrics of the 13-item BAOS-2. Study 1, with United Kingdom adults (N = 601), led to the extraction of a unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores and provided evidence of 4-week test-retest reliability. Study 2, with United Kingdom adults (N = 423), indicated that the unidimensional model of BAOS-2 scores had adequate fit and that scores were invariant across gender. Study 2 also provided evidence of convergent, construct, criterion, discriminant, and incremental validity. Study 3 cross-validated the fit of the unidimensional model in adults from the United State (N = 503) and provided evidence of invariance across gender and national group. Internal consistency coefficients of BAOS-2 scores were adequate across all three studies. There were no significant gender differences in BAOS-2 scores and a significant national difference had a negligible effect size. Thus, the BAOS-2 is a psychometrically-sound measure that can be utilised in future research.
Furnham, Adrian & Treglown, Luke (2021)
Sex differences in personality scores on six scales: Many significant, but mostly small, differences
Current Psychology Doi: 10.1007/s12144-021-01675-x
This study examined sex differences in domain and facet scores from six personality tests in various large adult samples. The aim was to document differences in large adult groups which might contribute new data to this highly contentious area. We reported on sex differences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); the Five Factor NEO-PI-R; the Hogan Personality Indicator (HPI); the Motives and Values Preferences Indicator (MVPI); the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) and the High Potential Trait Indicator (HPTI). Using multivariate ANOVAs we found that whilst there were many significant differences on these scores, which replicated other studies, the Cohen’s d statistic showed very few (3 out of 130) differences >.50. Results from each test were compared and contrasted, particularly where they are measuring the same trait construct. Implications and limitations for researchers interested in assessment and selection are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian (2021)
Just world beliefs, personal success and beliefs in conspiracy theories
Current Psychology, s. 1- 7. Doi: 10.1007/s12144-021-01576-z
Do those who believe in conspiracy theories feel less happy and healthy than others? Do they believe the world is simply unjust? This study was concerned with how demographic factors, personal ratings of success, personal ideology (political and religious beliefs) and Just World Beliefs are related to Conspiracy Theories. In total, 406 participants completed two questionnaires: Just World scale (Rubin & Peplau, 1975) and Conspiracy Theories Inventory (Swami et al., 2010) and provided various personal details. The Just World Scale yielded two scores: Just and Unjust beliefs. Participants also reported on their health, happiness and success and a reliable composite measure of well-being was computed. A regression showed younger males, with Unjust World beliefs and politically right-wing views, were more likely to endorse Conspiracy Theories. The discussion revolved around explaining individual differences in accepting these theories. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Kanazawa, Satoshi (2020)
The Evolution of Personality
Workman, Lance; Reader, Will & Barkow, Jerome H (red.). The Cambridge Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Behavior
Swami, Viren & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
The Influence of Personality on Aesthetic Preferences
Nadal, Marcos & Vartanian, Oshin (red.). The Oxford Handbook of Empirical Aesthetics
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Personality and Creativity at Work
Mumford, Michael D. & Todd, E. Michelle (red.). Creativity and Innovation in Organizations
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Demographic, Personality Trait and Personality Disorder Correlates of Aesthetic Motivation
Imagination, Cognition and Personality, s. 1- 18. Doi: 10.1177/0276236620942917
This study looked at personality and sub-clinical personality disorder correlates ofself-rated motives for aesthetic motivation (AM). Two groups, totalling over 4000adult British managers, completed three tests including a personality trait measure(HPI); a personality disorders measure (HDS), and a measure of their Motives andValues (MVPI) for Aestheticism and Culture. The two different groups had similarresults, showing that for personality traits Inquisitiveness (Openness-to-Experience)and Sociability (Extraversion) were positively, and Adjustment (low Neuroticism) andPrudence (Conscientiousness) were negatively, related to AM. For personality dis-order traits Imaginativeness (Schizotypy) and Colourful (Histrionic) were positivelycorrelated with AM. Factor analysis confirmed the higher order classification of bothtraits and disorders. Regressions at the higher factor level suggested personalitytraits were more related to AM than disorder traits. Implications for the selectionand management of aesthetic people are considered. Limitations and future direc-tions are also noted.
Gheewalla, Fatema; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Effects of background noise and extraversion on reading comprehension performance
Ergonomics Doi: 10.1080/00140139.2020.1854352
This study was concerned with the effects of acoustic distraction at work. Using a within-subject study we aimed to investigate the effect of background distraction on cognitive performance. In the presence of silence, white noise, and sirens, 55 fluent English speakers completed three equivalent variations of a reading comprehension task. As predicted, there was a significant main effect of background sound, with poorer performance in the presence of distraction (particularly sirens), but no interaction was found between distraction and extraversion. Thus, the findings partially replicated previous research in terms of distraction but were inconsistent with regard to the Eysenckian theory of arousal differences between introverts and extraverts. Implications of the effect of sirens on those they are not designed to alert are considered. Limitations of this study are also considered.
Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Scott, Green, Andy & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a nationally representative sample
Journal of Public Health, 42(3), s. 570- 578. Doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdz009
Objective To identify personality, biomedical and behavioural factors associated with adult obesity in a large longitudinal sample. Method In total, 5360 participants with data on personality, neurological functioning, maternal smoking during pregnancy, education and occupation, physical exercise, adult self-reported BMI and obesity were included in the study. Obesity at 55 years was the outcome variable. Results The rates of obesity increased from 9.5 to 22.8% from age 33 to 55 years. Logistic regression analyses (adjusted estimates) showed that childhood neurological functioning (OR = 1.32: 1.07–1.63, P < 0.01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.42: 1.22–1.65, P < 0.001), educational qualifications (OR = 0.54: 0.37–0.79, P < 0.01), trait conscientiousness (OR = 0.80:0.74–0.86, P < 0.001) and physical exercise (OR = 0.87: 0.82–0.92, P < 0.001) were significant predictors of obesity at age 55 years for both men and women. Trait extraversion for men (OR = 1.16: 1.07–1.26, P < 0.001) and trait emotional stability for women (OR = 0.90: 0.82–0.99, P < 0.05) were also significant predictors of the outcome variable. Conclusion Biomedical, psychological, environmental and behavioural factors were all associated with adult obesity.
Furnham, Adrian & Sherman, Ryne A. (2020)
Dark side personality and safety-related traits
Personality and Individual Differences Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110510
This study examined the relationship between eleven dark-side personality traits and six established safety competencies in a large sample. Over twenty-five thousand Americans completed a questionnaire on Safety-Related behaviour in the work-place which measured six different, but related, safety competencies. They also completed a Dark Side personality measure (Hogan Development Survey). Factor analysis revealed the six safety competencies consisted of two factors which, along with the total score, were the criterion variables. Step-wise regressions indicated that Dark Side traits Excitable (Borderline), Mischievous (Psychopath) and Colourful (Histrionic) were related negatively to the safety-related traits. In addition, the higher order Dark Side factor “Moving Against Others” (Cluster B) was associated with high risk, low safety competencies. There were interesting and important differences showing very different correlates of the three criterion variables. Problems of method invariance, as well the role of individual differences in safety-related traits and competencies, were discussed.
Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
The moderating effects of emotional stability on the relationship between the Dark Triad and different measures of risk-taking
Personality and Individual Differences Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110450
In this study we explored the relationship between the dark triad and risk-taking, using three self-report and one behaviour measure of the risk-taking. Our focus was on whether trait Neuroticism moderated this relationship. As predicted, all dark triad and risk-taking measures were highly positively correlated with each other. Sex, age and the dark-side measures were used as predictor variables in a set of hierarchical regressions onto the four different measures of risk-taking. Whilst there were some differences, the most consistently significant predictor of risk-taking was secondary psychopathy. As predicted Neuroticism was found to moderate the effects of secondary psychopathy on all but one of the four risk-taking measures. The results are discussed in terms of individual difference correlates of risk-taking. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian; Horne, George & Grover, Simmy (2020)
Correlates of the Militant Extremist Mindset
Frontiers in Psychology, 11, s. 1- 7. Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02250
This study aimed to examine bright- and dark-side personality, personal beliefs (religion and politics) and self-evaluation correlates of beliefs in the Militant Extremist Mindset (MEM). In all, 506 young adults completed various self-report measures in addition to the three-dimensional MEM questionnaire. The measures included short measures of the Big Five traits, Self-Monitoring, Self-Evaluation and Personality Disorders, as well as demographic questions of how religious and politically liberal participants were. The Proviolence, Vile World, and Divine power mindsets showed varying correlates, with no consistent trend. Stepwise regressions showed that the demographic, personality and belief factors accounted for between 14% (Vile World) and 54% (Divine Power) of the variance, There were many differences between the results of three mindset factors, but personality disorder scores remained positive predictors of all three. The Vile World mindset was predicted by religiousness, liberalism, personality disorder scores and negative self-monitoring, but not personality traits. Religiousness had a contribution to all subscales and predicted the vast majority of the Divine Power mindset with smaller relationships with personality and personality disorders. Proviolence was predicted by the majority personality measures and sex.
Schermer, Julie Aitken & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
The differentiation of personality by intelligence hypothesis in a sample of British managers
Personality and Individual Differences, 167 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110258
In this study, we test the hypothesis that personality is more differentiated (variable) in individuals scoring higher in intelligence in a large sample (N = 16,258) of managers. In addition to a measure of intelligence and the Big Five personality factors, participants completed 11 “dark” personality scales in self-report format. The intelligence scores had a normal distribution. Following a tertile split for the intelligence scores, the higher and lower tertile group's standard deviations were compared. The higher ability tertile had significantly greater scale variances for most of the Big Five scales (with the exception of agreeableness) but the differences tended to be small. Only three of the “dark” personality scales had significantly larger standard deviations in the higher tertile group, but also these differences were small. The inter-scale correlations and exploratory factor analyses suggested less covariance among the upper intelligence group but not for single Big Five factor facets. These results demonstrate some, but not definitive, support for the differentiation of personality by intelligence hypothesis and expand on the test of the theory by suggesting that some of the darker personality scale responses may also differ depending on individual differences in intelligence.
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Correlates of maternal Emotional Stability: Findings from the Millennium Cohort Study
Personality and Individual Differences, 164 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.110119
This study explored correlates of maternal Emotional Stability drawing on a longitudinal data, from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS): a sample of 10,925 mothers. Data were collected when children were at ages 9 months, and then 3 and 7 years. Structural equation modelling showed that family poverty indicator, maternal psychological distress, parent-child relationship, and children's behavioural problems all had significant and direct effects on maternal trait Emotional Stability (Neuroticism), accounting for 26% of the total variance. The strongest predictor was maternal psychological distress, followed by children's behavioural problems. Further, maternal psychological distress had direct effects on both parent-child relationship and children's behavioural adjustment. The implications and limitations are discussed.
Swami, Viren; Barron, David, Todd, Jennifer, Horne, George & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Nature exposure and positive body image: (Re-)examining the mediating roles of connectedness to nature and trait mindfulness
Body image, 34, s. 201- 208. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.06.004
Previous studies have reported a significant association between nature exposure and positive body image, but understandings of the mechanisms that help to explain this link remain nascent. Here, we considered the extent to which trait mindfulness and connectedness to nature, respectively, mediate the aforementioned relationship both in parallel and serially. An online sample of 398 participants (199 women, 196 men, 3 other; age M = 28.1 years) from the United Kingdom completed measures of self-reported nature exposure, mindful awareness and acceptance, connectedness to nature, and body appreciation. Results indicated that inter-correlations between scores on all measures were significant and positive. Following the elimination of non-significant pathways, path analysis resulted in an adequately-fitting model in which the direct relationship between nature exposure and body appreciation was significant. In addition, connectedness to nature – but not trait mindfulness – significantly mediated the direct relationship. Finally, we also found evidence of a serial mediation, where the association between nature exposure and body appreciation was mediated by mindful awareness followed by connectedness to nature. The implications of these results for scholarly and practitioner understanding of the impact of nature exposure on positive body image are discussed in conclusion.
Grover, Simmy; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Preferences for scarce medical resource allocation: Differences between experts and the general public and implications for the COVID-19 pandemic
British Journal of Health Psychology Doi: 10.1111/bjhp.12439
This study concerns what lay people believe is the best way to allocate scarce medical resources. A sample of 515 individuals completed a short questionnaire asking them to rank‐order eight different ethical positions with respect to the allocation of scarce resources. They showed a strong preference for the ‘saves most lives’ and ‘sickest first’ options, with ‘reciprocity’ and a ‘lottery’ being least favoured. There was a reasonable degree of unanimity amongst respondents and comparatively few correlations with individual difference factors such as demography. The preference results are compared to expert recommendations (Emanuel et al., 2020, N. Engl. J. Med., 382, 2049) made in light of the current coronavirus pandemic, and differences are highlighted. Implications for scare medical resource allocations are discussed, and limitations of the study acknowledged.
Swami, Viren; Furnham, Adrian, Horne, George & Stieger, Stefan (2020)
Taking it apart and putting it back together again: Using Item Pool Visualisation to summarise complex data patterns in (positive) body image research
Body image, 34, s. 155- 166. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2020.05.004
Issues of construct commonality and distinguishability in body image research are typically addressed using structural equal models, but such methods can sometimes present problems of interpretation when data patterns are complex. One recent-developed tool that could help in summarising complex data patterns is Item Pool Visualisation (IPV), an illustrative method that locates item pools from within the same dataset and illustrates these in the form of single or nested radar charts. Here, we demonstrate the utility of IPV in visualising data patterns vis-à-vis positive body image. Five-hundred-and-one adults from the United Kingdom completed seven widely-used measures of positive body image and data were subjected IPV. Results demonstrated that, of the included measures, the Body Appreciation Scale-2 provided the closest and most precise measurement of a core positive body image construct. The Functionality Appreciation Scale and the Authentic Pride subscale of the Body and Appearance Self-Conscious Emotions Scale tapped more distal aspects. Our results also highlight possible limitations with the use of several other instruments as measures of positive body image. We discuss implications for research aimed at better understanding the nature of positive body image and interpreting complex data patterns in body image research more generally.
Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Personality, ideology, and money attitudes as correlates of financial literacy and competence
Financial Planning Review, 3(1) Doi: 10.1002/cfp2.1070
This study looked at whether demographics, religious beliefs, political orientation, personality traits, and money attitudes are correlates of financial capability, knowledge and distress. Over 3,500 British participants completed multiple measures online. As hypothesized, demographics, religious beliefs, political orientation, personality traits, and money attitudes each explained unique variance in financial capability, financial knowledge, and financial distress. Regression and correlational results showed demographic factors particularly age, education, and income were significantly related to all criteria variables. Money attitudes explained additional variance in financial capability and distress beyond that explained by demography, ideology, and personality. Trait conscientiousness, money as security attitude, age, and income were most strongly correlated with financial capability and financial distress.
Andersen, Njål; Corr, Philip J. & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
A bibliometric analysis of H. J. Eysenck's research output: Clarifying controversy
Personality and Individual Differences Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.109935
We present a bibliometric analysis of a large corpus of research work by H. J. Eysenck (1916–1997), who was one of the most famous and productive psychologists of the 20th century. It utilizes new bibliometric tools to update an analysis of Rushton (2001), examining how articles cluster in terms of themes and co-authors. We present our analysis in the light of a recent investigation by King's College London, which concluded that a number of Eysenck's papers are ‘unsafe’ and they recommended that journal editors should consider their retraction. We enquire about the relationship between these personality and fatal disease papers and the wider body of Eysenck's work. Our analysis revealed that these papers are part of a research topic that stands apart from his many other seminal contributions to psychological knowledge; and, even if they were all retracted, this would have little impact on the main corpus of his work. Our analysis and presentation shines a new light on the contribution of Britain's most productive, but sometimes controversial, psychologist.
Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Personality at home vs. work: Does framing for work increase predictive validity of the Dark Triad on work outcomes?
In a between subject design 903 people completed a robust Dark Triad and a Big Five trait measure and each group was asked to report their behaviour in two situations: at work or in general. Those individuals that were asked to think of work when reporting their personality reported behaviour that was more Extraverted, Conscientious, more Emotional Stable and less Machiavellian. Unexpectedly, there was no difference for Narcissism and Psychopathy. Gender differences were smaller in the work group than the non-work group suggesting situation may moderate gender differences in personality. Implications and limitations are acknowledged.
Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Does emotional intelligence and resilience moderate the relationship between the Dark Triad and personal and work burnout?
Personality and Individual Differences Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.109979
This paper used moderator analysis to test whether emotional intelligence and resilience moderated the relationship between the Dark Triad variables and burnout. 232 adults completed measures of all variables. Primary Psychopathy was found to reduce an individual's level of burnout. However, Secondary Psychopathy and Machiavellianism were expected to increase burnout, and although the correlation results supported this, the regression models did not. Narcissism, unexpectedly, had no significant relationship with burnout. As predicted, emotional intelligence provides a buffer against negative effects of the Dark Triad traits but also amplifies the positive effects, such as reducing burnout. Implication and limitations are considered.
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Recruiting, selecting, retaining, and monitoring successful investment managers: A review of a scattered literature
Financial Planning Review, 3(1) Doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/cfp2.1071
This article attempts a comprehensive and multi‐disciplinary review of a scattered literature on the characteristics of successful investment managers. It considers nonpeer reviewed papers and reports written by organizations and human resource experts but also empirical papers from those in disciplines such as business studies, economics, finance, psychology, and psychiatry. It focuses on three issues: Ability, personality, and motivation. Most of the studies have concentrated on motivation and various themes are apparent suggesting that it is possible to profile successful investment managers.
Furnham, Adrian & Grover, Simmy (2020)
Correlates of self-estimated intelligence
Journal of Intelligence, 8(1) Doi: 10.3390/jintelligence8010006
This paper reports two studies examining correlates of self-estimated intelligence (SEI). In the first, 517 participants completed a measure of SEI as well as self-estimated emotional intelligence (SEEQ), physical attractiveness, health, and other ratings. Males rated their IQ higher (74.12 vs. 71.55) but EQ lower (68.22 vs. 71.81) than females but there were no differences in their ratings of physical health in Study 1. Correlations showed for all participants that the higher they rated their IQ, the higher their ratings of EQ, attractiveness, and health. A regression of self-estimated intelligence onto three demographic, three self-ratings and three beliefs factors accounted for 30% of the variance. Religious, educated males who did not believe in alternative medicine gave higher SEI scores. The second study partly replicated the first, with an N = 475. Again, males rated their IQ higher (106.88 vs. 100.71) than females, but no difference was found for EQ (103.16 vs. 103.74). Males rated both their attractiveness (54.79 vs. 49.81) and health (61.24 vs. 55.49) higher than females. An objective test-based cognitive ability and SEI were correlated r = 0.30. Correlations showed, as in Study 1, positive relationships between all self-ratings. A regression showed the strongest correlates of SEI were IQ, sex and positive self-ratings. Implications and limitations are noted.
Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Birds of a feather work together: The role of emotional intelligence and cognitive ability in workplace interaction and advice networks
Personality and Individual Differences, 158(1) Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2020.109833
The study investigated whether cognitive ability or trait emotional intelligence impacted the formation of task-contingent communication and advice seeking in the workplace. Contrary to the theory driven hypothesis, an employee's level of EI has no impact on their position within both interaction and advice networks. As predicted, those with higher levels of fluid intelligence represented ‘knowledge hubs’ and were sought out more by their colleagues. Those perceived to be capable of solving novel problems quickly and accurately had greater indegree centrality for both interaction and advice networks. Additionally, employees with similar levels of cognitive and emotional intelligence were more likely to have interaction and advice ties. This study suggests that employees do use affective judgements when evaluating the perceived utility of a relationship, but this is primarily influenced by how similar that person is to the evaluator and not the disposition of the evaluated.
Furnham, Adrian & Taylor, Nicola (2020)
The relationship between emotional intelligence and occupational personality scales in senior management
This study attempted to examine the Emotional Intelligence (EI) domain and facet correlates of various personality-test derived occupational Scale dimensions like service, sales and management in a developing country. In all, 431 people completed two validated questionnaires: one measuring six occupational scales (HPI: Hogan Personality Inventory) and the other a revised measure of Emotional Intelligence (EQ-i.20). There were few gender differences on the both measures. Factor analysis of the EI measure yielded three rather than six factors. Hierarchical regressions showed some EI facets that were positively related to many of the occupational scales, some that were negatively related, and others related to none. Implications for selection and limitations of the study are considered.
Swami, Viren; Barron, David, Hari, Ranjeev, Grover, Simmy, Smith, Lee & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
The Nature of Positive Body Image: Examining Associations Between Nature Exposure, Self-Compassion, Functionality Appreciation, and Body Appreciation
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Correlates of Adult Vocabulary Task Performance: Findings from a British Cohort
This study explored a longitudinal data set of 4361 adults (2119 males and 2239 females) to examine factors that influence adult vocabulary task performance. Data were collected at birth, in childhood (age 10 years), during teenage years (age 16 years), and in adulthood (ages 30, 34, and 42 years) to examine the effects of family social status, childhood cognitive ability, teenager locus of control, psychological distress, educational qualifications, and occupational prestige in adulthood on an adult vocabulary task—an index of crystallized intelligence. Structural equation modeling showed that childhood cognitive ability, teenager locus of control, education, and occupation were all significant and direct predictors of adult vocabulary task performance. Parental social status affected the outcome variable mediated through educational qualifications. The strongest predictor of adult vocabulary task performance was childhood cognitive ability, followed by educational qualifications and locus of control. Finally, limitations were acknowledged.
Furnham, Adrian (2019)
The personality disorders and money beliefs and behaviors
Financial Planning Review Doi: 10.1002/cfp2.1046
Just over 400 participants completed a measure of the personality disorders (PDs) (the Coolidge Axis‐II Inventory – Short Form measuring 14 dimensions) and one of money beliefs (The New Money Attitudes Test measuring five factors). Correlational analysis showed few significant age, gender, and educational relationships to the five money factors but that the PDs were consistently related to many of the factors. Regressions revealed that the PDs were most strongly related to two factors: Power and Prestige and Financial Literacy Worries factors. The regressions accounted for almost a quarter of the variance in the outcome variables. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of the origin of money beliefs. Limitations are noted.
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Childhood locus of control and self-esteem, education, psychological distress and physical exercise as predictors of adult obesity
Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Money Attitudes, Personality and Chronic Impulse Buying
Swami, Viren; Laughton, Ryan, Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Asexuality is inversely associated with positive body image in British adults
Research on positive body image has infrequently considered sexual minority orientations beyond lesbians, gay men, and bisexual persons. Indeed, there is no existing research on the relationships between body image and asexuality, which refers to a lack of sexual attraction to anyone or anything. In two studies, we rectified this by examining associations between asexuality – operationalised as a continuous construct – and indices of positive body image. In Study 1, 188 Britons from the community completed measures of asexuality and body appreciation. Once the effects of self-identified sexual orientation, relationship status, and body mass index (BMI) had been considered, asexuality was found to be significantly and negatively associated with body appreciation in women and men. In Study 2, an online sample of 377 Britons completed measures of asexuality, body appreciation, functionality appreciation, body acceptance from others, and body image flexibility. Beyond the effects of sexual orientation, relationship status, and BMI, asexuality was significantly and negatively associated with all four body image constructs in men, and with body appreciation and functionality appreciation in women. Although asexuality only explained a small proportion of the variance in positive body image (3–11%) and further studies are needed, the relationship appears to be stable.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2019)
The Big-Five personality factors, mental health, and social-demographic indicators as independent predictors of gratification delay
Personality and Individual Differences, 150 Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2019.109533
This paper reports on a study testing over 12,000 adults. We were interested in the correlates of gratification delay (GD) (as criterion variable) with gender, age, education and occupation, the Big-Five personality factors, and mental health (as predictor variables). Correlations and regressions showed that all the Big-Five personality factors, mental health, and a set of socio-demographic variables were significant and independent predictors of GD, accounting for 19% of the total variance of the outcome variable. As predicted, Conscientiousness was the strongest correlate. The implications of these findings are discussed along with the limitations of this research.
Godfrey Born, Charlotte; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Mental health literacy for autism spectrum disorder and depression
In this study, three hundred and sixty-eight participants answered a questionnaire consisting of three vignettes describing a person with depression, severe Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), and high-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder/Asperger's Syndrome (AS). Each vignette was followed by thirteen questions concerning the participant's knowledge about diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Participants demonstrated good mental health literacy (MHL) for depression, but were poor at diagnosing ASD. Drug therapy was rated as the least effective treatment and ‘talking to a family member of friend’ was rated as the most effective for each disorder. The highest prognosis ratings were given to depression, and the lowest given to ASD. Participants demonstrated better MHL than expected, possibly due to the availability of information on the Internet and the increase in prevalence of mental illnesses such as depression and ASD among the general population.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2019)
Factors influencing adult savings and investment: Findings from a nationally representative sample
This study explored a longitudinal data set of over 5766 adults examining factors that influence adult savings and investment. Data were collected at birth, in childhood (at age 11) and adulthood (at ages 33 and 50 yrs) to examine the effects of family social status, childhood intelligence, adult personality traits, education and occupation, and personal financial assessment on adult savings and investment. Results from structural equation modelling showed that parental social status, educational qualifications and occupational prestige, trait Conscientiousness, personal financial assessment and gender all had significant and direct effects on adult savings and investment, accounting for 26% of the total variance. The strongest predictor of adult savings and investment was their personal subjective financial assessment followed by educational qualifications and current occupational prestige. Limitations and implications are considered.
Furnham, Adrian & Grover, Simmy (2019)
A New Money Behavior Quiz
This study reports on the development of a new questionnaire to measure money behaviors devised by the Financial Times (London). In all, 402 participants from diverse backgrounds, who were recruited online, completed the 29-item questionnaire. Six a priori money types were identified by financial experts, who did not know the salient psychological literature. The internal reliability of the factors was modest and there was some evidence of sex differences. Exploratory factor analyses failed to confirm the six-factor model, but did provide an alternative and interpretable typology. Further step-wise regression analysis showed the simple question: “Are you a spender or a saver?” was strongly related to almost every factor. Gender, age, and self-perceived wealth were also consistently correlated with the money types. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Lay, Alixe (2019)
The universality of the portrayal of gender in television advertisements: A review of the studies this century
Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 8(2), s. 109- 124. Doi: 10.1037/ppm0000161
Swami, Viren; Barron, David, Smith, Lee & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Mental health literacy of maternal and paternal postnatal (postpartum) depression in British adults
Postnatal depression affects between 6 and 13% of new parents, but only a small proportion of individuals who meet diagnostic criteria receive optimal treatment. One reason for this is poor mental health literacy of postnatal depression. Studies have examined mental health literacy of maternal postnatal depression, but there are no similar studies of paternal postnatal depression, which we sought to rectify. A sample of 406 British adults was presented with vignettes describing cases of either maternal or paternal postnatal depression. Based on the vignettes, participants were asked to report if they thought anything was wrong with the targets and, if so, to describe what they thought was wrong. Participants also rated the targets on a range of attitudinal dimensions. Participants were more likely to indicate that something was wrong when the target was female (97.0%) compared to male (75.9%). Of those who believed something was wrong, 90.1% of participants correctly described the female target as experiencing postnatal depression, but only 46.3% did so for the male target. Participants also held more positive attitudes toward the female target than the male target. There is a gender binary in symptom recognition of postnatal depression, which highlights the need for greater awareness of paternal postnatal depression.
Furnham, Adrian & Petropoulou, Kelly (2019)
Mental health literacy, sub-clinical personality disorders and job fit
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2019)
The change and stability of NEO scores over six-years: A British study and a short review
This study investigated the change and stability of the Big-Five personality factors measured on a short scale. Fifteen similar studies using longer instruments were reviewed. In this study 7554 participants aged between 16 and 92 years completed a short 15 item FFM inventory twice six years apart in a large British sample. As expected, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Extroversion significantly increased, whereas Neuroticism significantly decreased, and Openness remained essentially the same over the time period. Participants were divided into six age groups and the results were broadly similar. Correlational analysis showed all five personality factors were considerably stable over six years after controlling for gender and age (r = 0.47 to r = 0.60, p < .001). Implications and limitations of using short scales particularly problems of measurement invariance, are acknowledged.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2019)
GHQ score changes from teenage to young adulthood
This study investigated the change in the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) scores from teenage years to young adulthood using a large, nationally representative sample in the UK. It took account of socio-demographic variables, childhood intelligence, behavioural problems and self-esteem at teenage and educational qualifications in early adulthood. In total, 3942 cohort members had the complete data on GHQ at ages 16 and 30 years. T-tests showed that there was statistically significant increase of GHQ mean scores over the 14 years (p < .001), however at the item level there were changes in both directions. The analysis showed that over 14 years the test-retest correlation was r = 0.24, indicating a modest level of stability. The GHQ was significantly and negatively associated with self-esteem, and positively associated with childhood behavioural problems. Regression analysis showed that gender, self-esteem, and behavioural problems measured in the teenage years were all significant predictors of GHQ at both time points, indicating the long-term effects of psychological and behavioural factors on teenagers and young adults’ mental health outcome. The implications for early interventions in school and family settings are discussed.
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Teenage locus of control, psychological distress, educational qualifications and occupational prestige as well as gender as independent predictors of adult binge drinking
Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Scott, Green, Andy & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Childhood heart problems, adulthood emotional stability, and sex associated with self-report heart conditions in adulthood
Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Cognitive style and competence motivation in creative problem solving
This study was conceived by the idea that there exist different kinds of cognitive style-based, task competencies that have implications for task motivation and cognitive performance on creative problem-solving tasks/insight. Specifically, the relationships among the Assimilator–Explorer styles (Kaufmann, 1979), experimentally manipulated task competence for each style, and performance on insight tasks was examined. A total of 264 participants with a mean age of 17.4 years completed a cognitive style test, two measures of task motivation, and three practical construction-type insight tasks. Explorers with experimentally increased competence beliefs were hypothesized to perform less well on typical insight problems than Explorers with experimentally decreased competence beliefs, while Assimilators with increased levels of competence beliefs were expected to perform better than Assimilators with decreased competence beliefs. A randomized experiment with written instructions was conducted to test these hypotheses. The results supported the main hypothesis, yet an additional three-way interaction hypothesis among styles, experimentally manipulated task competence, and task structure was not supported. Limitations are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2019)
Personality Traits and Socio-Demographic Variables as Predictors of Political Interest and Voting Behavior in a British Cohort
This study examines the associations between socio-demographic variables, the Big Five personality traits, and the extent of political interest as well as voting behavior, in a large, nationally representative sample in the UK. The contribution of the Big Five personality traits to political issues over and above demography, education, and social class was the central focus. The analytic sample comprised 7,135 cohort members with complete data. Correlational analysis showed that personality traits and demographic variables were significantly associated with both political interest and voting behavior. Regression analysis showed that sex, education and occupation, and four of the five personality traits were significantly and independently associated with political interest in adulthood. Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Openness were significantly and positively associated with political interest, whereas Conscientiousness was negatively associated with the outcome variable. Personality accounted for incremental variance. Further, parental social class, education and occupation, and traits Emotional Stability and Openness were all significantly and positively associated with voting behavior. The results confirm other studies and show that personality traits account for unique variance over and above demographic factors in predicting political interests and behaviors.
Wong, Hiu Yan Amy; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Advertisement-programme congruence in memory of sexual fragrance advertisements
Vimalanathan, Adshara & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Comparing physical and mental health literacy
Journal of Mental Health, s. 1- 6. Doi: 10.1080/09638237.2018.1466050
Gajre, Meera; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Allocating a scarce mental health treatment to the underweight and overweight
Journal of Mental Health, 27(6), s. 490- 495. Doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1370636
Furnham, Adrian (2018)
A Big Five facet analysis of sub-clinical dependent personality disorder (Dutifulness)
Psychiatry Research, 270, s. 622- 626. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.10.052
Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The bright and dark side of achievement motivation
Current Psychology, s. 1- 9. Doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-0060-z
Furnham, Adrian & Swami, Viren (2018)
Mental health literacy: A review of what it is and why it matters
International Perspectives in Psychology: Research, Practice, Consultation, 7(4), s. 240- 257. Doi: 10.1037/ipp0000094
Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The Great Divide: Academic Versus Practitioner Criteria for Psychometric Test Choice
Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(5), s. 498- 506. Doi: 10.1080/00223891.2018.1488134
Harrison, Sophie; Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The perception of sub-clinical personality disorders by employers, employees and co-workers
Psychiatry Research, s. 1- 10. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.05.036
Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Advertising: The contribution of applied cognitive psychology
This paper looks at the contribution of applied cognitive psychology primarily to the research on advertising. The first issue is to attempt to define and specify the unique contribution of applied, as opposed to “pure,” cognitive psychology to this research area. Next, the issue of the medium of message delivery is discussed. The importance of program involvement and mood impact on memory for advertisements is then reviewed. The major part of the review looks at the influence of humor, sex, violence, and unconventional sex roles in advertisements on their impact on viewer's memory. An attempt is made to document important and replicated findings in this area. Finally, some effort is made to consider future avenues of research.
Martinsen, Øyvind L.; Arnulf, Jan Ketil, Furnham, Adrian & Lang-Ree, Ole Christian (2018)
Narcissism and creativity
In this study, we investigated the relationship between narcissism, creative personality traits, ideational fluency, and accomplishments in various creative activities. We measured narcissism with the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (Emmons, 1987), creative personality with the Creative Person Profile (Martinsen, 2011), creative potential with a figural measure of divergent thinking, and a biographical inventory was used to measure accomplishments in creative activities. The sample consisted of 1375 young adults, mainly men. The results showed that narcissism was associated with fluency, seven creative personality dispositions, and five measures of creative activities. The latter associations were in general significant even when controlling for traits and creative potential. The strongest relationship displayed with narcissism was with the creative personality traits, in particular ambition, agreeableness, and motivation. Implications and limitations are noted.
Furnham, Adrian & Murphy, Toni-Ann (2018)
Money types, money beliefs, and financial worries: An Australian study
Objective - To examine correlates of beliefs about money in Australia. The focus of this study was on correlates of individual money types, which looks at the extent to which money was associated with Freedom, Love, Power, and Security. Method - The National Money Research was conducted in Australia in May 2017. The total sample size was 3,285 adult respondents (18+) throughout the Commonwealth of Australia. The sample was representative of Australian adult population with regard to gender and age ratios. All participants completed a 115‐item questionnaire on money beliefs and behaviours. They also completed questionnaires on their financial general life satisfaction. Results - Factor analysis of the different measures yielded an interpretable factor structure. Those who associated money with Power and Freedom tended to be less satisfied with many aspects of their life (finances, friends, family life) while those who associated money with Security were more happy with their finances and health. Those who saw money as Love were happy with most aspects of their life, particularly their family life. The Money Mindset questionnaire factored into four clear factors labelled Security, Politics, Openness, and Trust of which the former was related to all of the four money types. There were also money type gender differences in who participants talked to about their financial situation. Implications and limitations are discussed. Conclusion - The results were both similar to, and different from, studies conducted in other countries.
Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Scott, Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Associations between childhood biomedical factors, maternal smoking, personality traits, Body and Mass Index and the prevalence of asthma in adulthood
Objective: The study set out to investigate socio-economic, biomedical, health and behavioural and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, drawing data from The National Child Development Studies (NCDS), a birth cohort in the UK. Design: The National Child Development Study, a nationally representative sample of 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33 and 50 years was used. Main Outcome Measure: The prevalence of asthma at age 50 was the outcome measure. The analytic sample consists of 5118 participants with complete data on a set of measures at birth, at ages 7, 11, 33 and 50 years. Results: Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that childhood asthma (OR = 6.77: 4.38–10.48, p < .001) and respiratory symptoms (OR = 1.83: 1.18–2.86, p < .01), maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 1.26: 1.00–1.59, p < .05), Body and Mass Index (BMI) (OR = 1.03: 1.02–1.05, p < .001), traits Neuroticism (OR = 1.13: 1.01–1.21, p < .05) and Conscientiousness (OR = 0.76: 0.76–0.96, p < .01), as well as sex (OR = 1.49: 1.15–1.94, p < .001) were all significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood. Conclusion: The study shows that both childhood and adulthood psychological and sociological factors are significantly associated with the prevalence of asthma in adulthood, though more work need to be done in this area.
Ihsan, Zohra & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The new technologies in personality assessment: A review
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 70(2), s. 147- 166. Doi: 10.1037/cpb0000106
This article reviews various new approaches to assessing personality. They are divided into five areas: big data, wearable technology, gamification, video-résumés, and automated personality testing. These are briefly described and the available evidence for their psychometric properties considered. At this stage there is more absence of evidence of the psychometric properties of these new approaches than evidence of absence of their validity. There is limited, but growing, research on each of these methods that may offer new and improved ways of assessing personality. Test publishers and consultants report that their clients, interested in assessment, are eager to exploit the new technologies irrespective of there being good evidence of their reliability and validity.
Furnham, Adrian & MacRae, Ian (2018)
The dark side of work values
Current Psychology, s. 1- 7. Doi: 10.1007/s12144-018-9873-z
The current study investigates dark-side personality traits correlates of the revised Work Values Questionnaire (WVQ) which has two main factors (Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation) and each having three sub-factors. Participants also completed the Coolidge Axis-II Inventory (SCATI: Coolidge 2001) which measures fourteen sub-clinical personality disorders (PDs), and they rated their IQ and EQ. Males and younger people rated Recognition positively and Security negatively as work motivational factors. Regressions indicated that the PDs were more associated with Intrinsic Motivators, particularly Recognition and Affiliation. When the PDs were clustered according to DSM-V (APA 2015) guidelines it appeared that Cluster A was negatively, and Cluster B positively, associated with Intrinsic Motivation at domain and facet level. Implications and limitations are considered.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2018)
Early predictors of trait extraversion in adulthood: Findings from a nationally representative sample
Personality and Individual Differences, 135, s. 242- 247. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.07.026
In total, 5663 participants provided information on family social background measured at birth; family social life at age 7 years; childhood intelligence, childhood speech difficulties and oral ability assessed at 11 years; leisure activities (parties and sports) measured at age 16 years; optimism and educational qualifications measured at 33 years; occupational levels at 42 years; and trait Extraversion measured at 50 years. Parental social status, childhood social life, childhood intelligence and speech abilities, parties and sports, optimism, education and occupation were all significantly associated with Extraversion accounting for around a tenth of the variance. Structural equation modelling showed that six factors: childhood social life, childhood speech ability, parties and sports, optimism, and occupational levels were significant and independent predictors of trait Extraversion in adulthood for both men and women. Implications and limitations of the study are acknowledged.
Lay, Alixe & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
A New Money Attitudes Questionnaire
European Journal of Psychological Assessment Doi: 10.1027/1015-5759/a000474
This study reports on the development and validation of a new questionnaire to measure money attitudes and beliefs. In all, 268 participants from diverse backgrounds, who were recruited online, completed a 30-item questionnaire. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses verified a five-factor model. The factors were labeled: Achievement and Success, Power and Status, Mindful and Responsible, Saving Concerns, and Financial Literacy Worries. Results showed that demography (sex, age, and education), ideology (politics and religious practices), and self-rated happiness, success, and adjustment were related to all five factors, particularly the first two. Worries about Financial Literacy is an important and neglected factor in money attitudes research, which has implications for consumer well-being and protection. Limitations and implications are noted.
Akram, Zara; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The effect of fear‐inducing content on memory for advertisements and on retroactive and proactive interference of programme information
The current study focused on whether fear‐inducing content in television advertisements leads to better memory for the advertisement but also impairs memory for programme information that either precedes the advertisements (retroactive interference) or that follows the advertisements (proactive interference). Fifty‐four participants (48 female) aged 18 to 55 watched a programme that had an advertisement break in the centre. This consisted of 6 advertisements with either fear‐inducing or nonfear‐inducing content. Participants were tested on their recall and recognition of the advertisement information as well as their recall of the first half and second half of the programme. The results indicated that fear‐inducing advertisements were better recalled than those that elicited no fear, and there was also evidence of proactive interference from fear‐inducing advertisements on programme recall. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark (2018)
Personality and political orientation
This study examined the incremental validity of the Big-Five personality traits over primarily demographic factors in predicting Left-Right political orientation (PO) in a large British adult sample. Gender and trait Openness was most strongly correlated with PO. The regression indicated that females who were better educated, less religious and of higher social class were more Left-Wing. Personality traits doubled the variance accounted for (4% to 9%) indicating that Open, more Agreeable people were more Left-Wing and Introverted, more Conscientious people more Right-Wing. Agreeableness and Neuroticism showed an interaction with social class, such that for high social class, Left-Wing orientation increased with Agreeableness (but not for low social class); and for high social class, Left-Wing orientation increased with Neuroticism, whilst for low social class, Right-Wing orientation increased with Neuroticism
Furnham, Adrian & Treglown, Luke (2018)
High potential personality and intelligence
The present study investigated the relationship between six high flyer personality traits and intelligence measured at the domain and facet level. In all, 820 adults completed a multidimensional High Flyers Personality Inventory (measuring six traits) and a multidimensional intelligence test. Correlational analysis showed four traits were related to specific measures of IQ; particularly Conscientiousness, Risk Approach, Ambiguity Acceptance, and Competitiveness. Regressions showed the five IQ measures were differently related to the six high flyer traits, accounting for between three and 7% of the variance. Additionally, structural equation models (SEM) demonstrated that these relationships differ between male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of the literature on the relationship between preference (personality) and power (ability) tests. Limitations are acknowledged.
Kou, Siyi; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
The effect of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of Chinese introverts and extraverts
Previous research has shown that background auditory distractors (music and sound/noise) have a more severe impact on introverts’ performances on complex cognitive tasks than extraverts (Dobbs, Furnham, & McClelland, 2011). The present study is a partial replication of Dobbs et al., but involving Chinese rather than English participants. Ninety-two Chinese participants (59 female) carried out three cognitive tasks with the presence of Chinese pop songs, background office noise, and silence. The results did not reveal any differences in performance as a function of the distraction condition, nor was there a difference in performance between extraverts and introverts. The failure to replicate is explained in terms of habituation to noisy environments among Chinese participants.
Treglown, Luke; Zivkov, Katarina, Zarola, Anthony & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Intention to quit and the role of dark personality and perceived organizational support: A moderation and mediation model
This study investigated the role of individual differences (dark personality) and situational factors (perceived organisational support) in explaining intention to quit. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 of which females) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires (Hogan Development Survey; Perceived Organisational Support Survey; and a single item Intention to Quit measure) as a part of a selection and development assessment. Employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, and Mischievous, but low on Colourful were found to have greater intentions to quit. Additionally, employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, Reserved, and Leisurely, but low on Dutiful and Diligent had lower perceptions of organisational support. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived organisational support plays both a mediating and moderating role on dark personality and intention to quit. Theoretical implications of personality’s role in perceived organisational support and intention to quit are discussed.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2018)
Conscientiousness and occupational prestige as independent predictors of the change of tobacco use in adulthood
This study investigated the association between childhood intelligence, personality traits, parental social class, maternal smoking, educational qualifications and occupation prestige, and smoking status assessed at different ages. The study was based on a British birth cohort with nine follow-ups. At age 54 years, cohort members provided information on current tobacco use (Yes/No) and the frequency of daily cigarettes smoking. Response of the same questions was also collected four years earlier, at age 50 years. Results showed that among the 5316 participants with complete data, there was a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in the rates of current tobacco use from age 50 to age 54 years (17.9% and 15.0%). Logistic regression analyses showed that, whilst educational qualifications, occupational prestige, and three of the Big-Five personality traits (Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Openness) were all significant predictors of current smoking status at age 54 years. After controlling for the initial smoking status, measured four years earlier, only trait Conscientiousness and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of the outcome variable. Low intelligence predicted smoking status >39 years later, mediated by educational qualifications. Implications and limitations are noted.
Swami, Viren & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, is associated with breast self-examination frequency and breast change detection in British women
Studies examining associations between body image and breast self-examination (BSE) have returned mixed findings, but this may be a function of focusing on global body image. Here, we examined the impact of breast size dissatisfaction specifically on BSE and behaviours in relation to breast change detection. A total of 384 British women completed measures of breast size dissatisfaction, body dissatisfaction, BSE frequency, confidence in detecting breast change, and delay in contacting their doctor upon detecting a breast change. Regression analyses indicated that greater breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, was significantly associated with less frequent BSE and lower confidence in detecting breast change. Both breast size and body dissatisfaction were significantly associated with greater delay in consulting a doctor following breast change, but the former was the stronger predictor. These findings suggest that improving breast size satisfaction may be a useful means of promoting improved breast awareness and self-examination.
Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian, Weis, Laura, Morgan, Kevin, Towell, Tony & Swami, Viren (2018)
The relationship between schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs via cognitive processes
This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample. Confirmatory evidence was found for the association between analytic thinking and conspiracist beliefs, and results also suggested an association between cognitive insight and conspiracist beliefs. Cognitive insight also mediated the link between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference with conspiracist beliefs. However, analytic thinking provided a mediating link to conspiracy ideation for Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and not Ideas of Reference. Finally, there was an association between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and need for cognition, but this path did not extend to conspiracist beliefs. These results suggest possible mediating roles for analytic thinking and self-certainty between schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs.
Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; Dibb, Sally & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
Antecedents and consequences of chronic impulsive buying: Can impulsive buying be understood as dysfunctional self‐regulation?
Researchers reach different conclusions about the functional or dysfunctional nature of impulsive buying behavior. While many note the use of impulsive buying as a form of mood regulation, there is disagreement about whether this is functional or dysfunctional and the extent to which it causes financial harm. This paper draws on data from a U.K. national survey sample (N = 109,472) to contribute to these debates. Study results suggest that impulsive buying is more common for those who have most need to regulate mood and who have the least effective emotion regulation strategies. This suggests that impulsive buying may be understood as a failure of self‐regulation in relation to long‐term goals and as a strategy for mood regulation. Contrary to some prior claims in the retail management and marketing research literature, the study shows higher levels of impulsive buying to be associated with more adverse financial outcomes (which are not confined to the most extreme manifestations of the trait). While ineffective emotion regulation is associated with higher propensity to buy impulsively, the findings also suggest that effective emotion regulation may to some extent mitigate the adverse consequences of the propensity to buy impulsively. The implications for ethical management, research, and policy are considered.
Swami, Viren; Barron, David, Weis, Laura & Furnham, Adrian (2018)
To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum
We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave. Islamophobia and Islamophobic conspiracist beliefs also mediated the effects of perceived threat from Muslims on voting intentions. Other variables acted as antecedents of perceived threat or Islamophobic conspiracy narratives. These findings highlight the role that identity-based cognitions may have played in shaping voting intentions for the UK EU referendum.
Tommasi, Marco; Grassi, Paola, Balsamo, Michela, Picconi, Laura, Furnham, Adrian & Saggino, Aristide (2018)
Correlations Between Personality, Affective and Filial Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Psychological Well-Being in a Sample of Italian Adolescents.
Psychological Reports, 121(1), s. 59- 78. Doi: 10.1177/0033294117720698
Adolescence is a critical period for the emergence of a balanced personality in adults. Extraversion, neuroticism, and affective self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation showed to be good predictors of psychological well-being in adolescents. We analyzed the association between affective self-efficacy beliefs, personality traits, and psychological well-being of 179 Italian adolescents. We also analyzed the connection between adolescents' filial self-efficacy beliefs and psychological well-being and possible moderating effects of self-efficacy beliefs on personality traits. Results show that extraversion, neuroticism, and self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation are correlated with psychological well-being, while filial self-efficacy does not. Self-efficacy beliefs do not show significant moderating effects on personality traits, even if self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions reduce negative characteristics of individuals with high level of psychoticism.
Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2017)
Personality correlates of passive-aggressiveness: a NEO-PI-R domain and facet analysis of the HDS Leisurely scale
Background: This study looked at the relationship between “bright-side” and “dark-side” personality variables by focusing on the controversial trait of Passive-Aggressiveness. Around 4800 British adults completed the NEO-PI-R which measures the Big Five Personality factors at the Domain and the Facet level, as well as the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) which has a measure of Passive-Aggressiveness called Leisurely. im: To determine to what extent the well-established Big Five traits measured at both domain and facet level can account for the variance in a measure of passive-aggressiveness. Findings: Correlations and regressions indicated that Leisurely individuals are introverted, closed-minded Neurotics, with particular needs for order and deliberation. Neuroticism facets accounted for most of the variance. Overall, the Big Five measured at Domain and Facet level accounted for relatively small amounts of variance, suggesting the divergent validity of this measure of PAPD. Conclusions: This scale measures something that is not captured by comprehensive taxonomies of personality. Limitations and implications for clinical practice are noted.
Han, Da Eun; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
The Effects of Programme Context on Memory for Humorous Television Commercials
This study investigated the effects of programme context on memory for humorous television advertisements in South Korean participants. Humorous and non-humorous Korean advertisements were embedded within two programme contexts; humorous and non-humorous. When the programme ratings of humour, enjoyment and involvement were higher, unaided recall was poorer. In addition, unaided recall of the advertisements was better when they were embedded within a non-humorous programme. However, there was no significant programme advertisement interaction effect. Overall, both free and cued-recall were higher for humorous advertisements than for the non-humorous advertisements. The findings are discussed in terms of cultural differences and changes in television programmes and advertising over time.
Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Dark side correlates of job reliability and stress tolerance in two large samples
This study set out to examine how dark-side traits (derailers) are related to Stress Tolerance and Job Reliability. Over 8000 adult Britons from two separate assessment centres completed two validated questionnaires: the first measured the “dark-side” traits which can derail one’s career (HDS: Hogan Development Survey) and the second two established, criterion-related, scales called the Occupational Scales (HPI: Hogan Personality Inventory): Stress Tolerance which is associated with the ability to handle pressure well and not be tense and anxious; Job Reliability which identifies people who are honest, dependable and responsive to supervision. Hierarchical regressions showed that some “dark-side” factors like Excitable and Cautious were related to both Occupational variables while being Leisurely, Bold, Mischievous and Colourful were powerful negative predictors of work reliability. The Moving Against People factor was the strongest predictor of Stress Tolerance and Reliability while the Moving Away from People factor was also a powerful predictor of Reliability. The results highlight “dark-side” traits (Excitable, Cautious, Mischievous, Imaginative) which were most related to two crucial features of successful management.
Toverljani, Anita; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
The Effect of Sexual Programme Content on the Recall of Foreign Sexual and Non-sexual Advertisements
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(2), s. 199- 206. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3317
Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Montgomery, Scott, Kornilaki, Ekaterina N., Tsivrikos, Dimitrios & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
The associations between personality traits, education, occupation and the occurrence of eczema in adulthood
There were 5,834 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, the Big-Five Factor personality traits, occupational levels, and eczema ( measured at age 50 years). Results showed that eczema in childhood, educational achievement and occupational levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of reported eczema in adulthood. Emotionally Stable people (non Neurotic) were less likely to have eczema, but those with high Agreeableness and Openness more likely to have eczema. Childhood cognitive ability was significantly and positively associated with eczema in adulthood
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Personality traits neuroticism and openness as well as early abnormal eye conditions as predictors of the occurrence of eye problems in adulthood
This study set out to examine the associations between psychological, biomedical and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the occurrence of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood. In total, 5706 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability accessed at age 11years, abnormal eye conditions by the age of 16 years diagnosed by medical professionals, educational qualifications obtained at age 33 years, the Big Five Factor personality traits measured at age 50 years, current occupational levels and self-reported eye conditions at age 54 years were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the factors examined early abnormal eye conditions, traits neuroticism and openness as well as sex were the significant predictors of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood
Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Personality differences in managers who have, and have not, worked abroad
European Management Journal, 35(1), s. 39- 45. Doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2016.10.002
Jeon, Mina & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Mental health literacy in South Korea
The study aimed to examine the Korean public’s recognition of mental disorders, attitudes towards mental disorders and knowledge and beliefs about professional or self-help for mental disorders. In all 253 participants were presented with case vignettes describing bulimia nervosa, bipolar disorder, substance addiction, depression, schizophrenia, OCD, ADHD, anorexia and social phobia. Participants were asked to identify described mental disorders in the vignettes, to rate each character’s adjustment to live with the mental problems and to rate the likelihood of suggesting several types of help for each character. Participants noted their previous history of exposure to mental disorders. Substance addiction was recognized the most (80.2%) and anorexia the least (10.7%). Participants responded the psychologist/psychiatrist’s help the most helpful. Of the nine mental disorders, the recognition of six mental disorders were significantly predicted by predictors included in this study, and amongst the factors, higher level of education was found to be the most significant predictor for high recognition of mental disorders. Compared to other countries, Korean’s ability to recognize mental disorders was poorer than British and there was difference between South Korean and other Eastern countries in terms of ability to recognize mental disorders even if they share similar culture. Limitations of this study were recognized
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)
Factors affecting adult trait Neuroticism in a nationally representative sample
This study explores factors in childhood and adulthood that affect adult trait Neuroticism in a large, nationally representative sample. 5785 participants provided information on family social background measured at birth; Intelligence assessed at 11 years; Behavioural problems measured at 11 years; Malaise assessed at 23 years; Educational qualifications obtained at 33 years; Occupational levels at 42 years, and personality trait Neuroticism measured at 50 years. Structural equation modelling showed that sex, childhood Behavioural Problems, childhood Intelligence, Malaise in early adulthood, and Occupation were all significant and independent predictors of adult trait Neuroticism. Parental social status was significantly and negatively associated with Malaise at age 23, but was not a significant predictor of trait Neuroticism at age 50 years. Education predicted Neuroticism mainly through occupation. The strongest predictor of trait Neuroticism at 50 years was Malaise measured at 23 years, with a corrected correlation of r = .42 over the 27 year period. The results suggest some underlying biological/genetic mechanism.
Cheng, Helen; Green, Andy, Chapman, Benjamin P., Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Educational achievement and traits emotional stability and agreeableness as predictors of the occurrence of backache in adulthood
This study investigated the associations between psychological as well as social factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood back pain in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The analytic sample comprises 5,698 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at age 11, educational qualifications measured at age 33, personality traits were assessed at age 50, occupational levels, and back pain measured at age 54. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that among all socio-demographic and psychological factors examined, only the highest educational qualification (OR=0.62: 0.41-0.93, p<.05) and traits emotional stability (OR=0.76: 0.71-0.83, p<.001) and agreeableness (OR=1.10: 1.01-1.21, p<.05) were significant predictors of the occurrence of back pain in adulthood. No significant sex differences were found for the prevalence of back pain in adulthood.
Wickstead, Robert & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Comparing mental health literacy and physical health literacy: an exploratory study
Background: This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis). Participants were also asked to rate their sympathy and estimates of prevalence for each disorder. Results: Recognition of the mental health disorders was superior compared recognition of the physical disorders. Analysis of treatment beliefs, sympathy and prevalence ratings also showed significant differences between disorders. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of education and the lack of public knowledge regarding major physical health conditions.
Lahrach, Y & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Are modern health worries associated with medical conspiracy theories?
This study was concerned with whether Medical Conspiracy Theories (MCTs), along with other variables (demographics, ideology and health perceptions) are associated with Modern Health Worries (MHWs). MCTs were significantly associated with MHWs over and above all other variables. Older individuals, with more religious and right-wing beliefs had higher MHWs. In addition, those who used Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and individuals who perceived their mental health as worse than their peers were also more likely to display higher MHWs. Implications for helping health professions understand their patients' health-related beliefs and choices were discussed.
Swami, Viren; Arthey, Elizabeth & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Perceptions of plagiarisers: The influence of target physical attractiveness, transgression severity, and sex on attributions of guilt and punishment
Body image, 22, s. 144- 147. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.06.009
Galliford, Natasha & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Individual difference factors and beliefs in medical and political conspiracy theories
This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N=323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine. It was also correlated with religiousness and gender. Low Emotional Stability and Agreeableness were also correlated with belief in political conspiracies, and higher education level was correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. The findings generally demonstrated support for a monological belief system. Implications and limitations are discussed.
Teodorescu, Alexandra; Furnham, Adrian & MacRae, Ian (2017)
Trait correlates of success at work
Purpose: Identifying and developing high potential individuals is fundamental to successful companies and organisations. The present study focuses on the personality traits of high potential individuals. Design: The High Potential Traits Inventory (MacRae, 2012; MacRae & Furnham, 2014) was used to investigate associations between personality traits and subjective and objective measures of career success, in a sample of 383 employed individuals. Findings: Results indicate High Potential Traits Inventory (HPTI) personality traits relate to subjective and objective measures of success with Conscientiousness being the strongest predictor. The findings of the current study are consistent with previous research on High Flyers. Implications: Implications of the current study are discussed, suggesting a clearer operationalization of success is crucial for understanding the underlying mechanisms which lead from personality to potential. Originality/Value: This the validation of a new, robust and succinct measure designed to identify High Flyers in the workplace.
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Early indicators of self-esteem in teenagers: Findings from a nationally representative sample
This study explored a longitudinal data set of 3,096 British sixteen year olds with data collected in 1970, 1980, and 1986. It examined how parental social status at birth; intelligence, locus of control and behavioural problems all measured at aged 10 years influenced teenage self-esteem measured at aged 16 years. There were two related measures of self-esteem: General and School setting. Correlational analysis showed locus of control beliefs, childhood intelligence scores, behavioural problems and parental social status were all significantly related to the self-esteem measures. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood locus of control, childhood intelligence and behavioural problems were significant and independent predictors of self-esteem at age 16 years. Females had higher academic but lower general self-esteem compared to males. Limitations and implications of this study are considered.
Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Scott, Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2017)
Emotional stability, conscientiousness, and self-reported hypertension in adulthood
Objective: To investigate social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood associated with self-reported hypertension in adulthood. Method: Using data from the National Child Development Study, a nationally representative sample of 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 11, 33, and 50 years of age. Self-reported diagnosed hypertension by 50 years was the outcome measure. Results: In total, 5,753 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels, and self-reported hypertension (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that sex (OR=0.60: 0.49-0.73, p<.001), educational qualifications (OR=0.59: 0.37-0.92, p<.05), and traits emotional stability (OR=0.84: 0.77-0.91, p<.001) and conscientiousness (OR=0.89: 0.82-0.98, p<.05) were all significantly associated with the occurrence of self-reported hypertension in adulthood. Conclusion: Both psychological factors and socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with self-reported hypertension in adulthood.
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)
Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence,and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being
The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth), childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10), locus of control (at age 16), psychological distress (age 30), educational qualifications (age 34), current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years) were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)
Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being
This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS). The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11), educational qualifications (at age 33), personality traits (at age 50), current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54). Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.
Lee, Cheuk Yan; Furnham, Adrian & Merritt, Christopher (2017)
Effect of directness of exposure and trauma type on Mental Health Literacy of PTSD
Background: Research has demonstrated that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most widely recognized mental disorders (Furnham & Lousley, 2012), but recognition is affected by trauma type (Merritt et al., 2014). Aims: The current study investigated the effect of direct versus indirect exposure to traumatic event and trauma types on Mental Health Literacy (MHL) of PTSD. Methods: 233 participants were asked to identify the mental health problem after presentation of an unlabeled vignette describing a character experiencing PTSD symptoms. The six vignettes described the same symptoms but differed in directness (direct/indirect exposure) and trauma type (rape, military combat or man-made disaster). It was hypothesized that  recognition rate would be higher in direct than indirect conditions, and  higher in military combat, followed by man-made disaster, and lowest in rape condition. Results: Overall, correct recognition of PTSD was 42.5%. Recognition in direct exposure vignettes was significantly higher than indirect, supporting the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis was only partly supported. While PTSD recognition in rape vignettes was significantly lower than the other two scenarios, no difference was found between combat and man-made disaster trauma types. Conclusions: Our findings implied under-recognition of PTSD, with lack of awareness of different causes of PTSD and of PTSD from indirect trauma exposure. The latter finding is important in the light of DSM-V revisions to diagnostic criteria for PTSD.
Yang, Jeremy; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The effect of background music on the cognitive performance of musicians: A pilot study
Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(6), s. 535- 541. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12305
Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus & Weis, Laura (2016)
Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test
Psychiatry Research, 244(Oct.), s. 363- 369. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.06.058
Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Green, Andy, Chapman, Benjamin P., Kornilaki, Ekaterina N. & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
Childhood onset of migraine, gender, parental social class, and trait neuroticism as predictors of the prevalence of migraine in adulthood
Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica, Wolpert, Miranda, Chapman, Benjamin P., Kornilaki, Ekaterina N., Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurence of hay fever in adulthood
Journal of Health Psychology, 21(10), s. 2367- 2375. Doi: 10.1177/1359105315576784
Treglown, Luke; Palaiou, Kat, Zarola, Anthony & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The dark side of resilience and burnout: A moderation-mediation model
PLOS ONE, 11(6) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156279
Soh, Melinda; Zarola, Antonio, Palaiou, Kat & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
Health Psychology Open (HPO), 3(1), s. 1- 11. Doi: 10.1177/2055102916628380
Storek, Josephine & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The role of gender, task success probability estimation and scores as predictors of the domain-masculine intelligence type (DMIQ)
Learning and Individual Differences, 50(Aug.), s. 23- 29. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.06.011
Furnham, Adrian; Humphries, Chris & Leung Zheng, Edward (2016)
Can successful sales people become successful managers? Differences in motives and derailers across two jobs
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(3), s. 252- 268. Doi: 10.1037/cpb0000060
Furnham, Adrian; Ritchie, William & Lay, Alixe (2016)
Beliefs about the causes and cures of depression
Lui, Christopher; Wong, Cheuk & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
Mental health literacy in Hong Kong
Martinsen, Øyvind L.; Furnham, Adrian & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)
An Integrated Perspective on Insight
Journal of experimental psychology. General, 145(10), s. 1319- 1332. Doi: 10.1037/xge0000208
Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
Coaching as a developmental intervention in organisations: A systematic review of its effectiveness and the mechanisms underlying It
PLOS ONE, 11:0159137(7) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159137
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The big-five personality traits, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and educational qualifications as predictors of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample
PLOS ONE, 11(1) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145552
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2016)
Childhood intelligence, self-esteem, early trait neuroticism and behaviour adjustment as predictors of locus of control in teenagers
Personality and Individual Differences, 95, s. 178- 182. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.054
Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2016)
A Big Five facet analysis of a psychopath: The validity of the HDS mischievous scale of sub-clinical psychopathy
Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(2), s. 117- 121. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12260
Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The Assimilator-Explorer styles and creativity
Personality and Individual Differences, 98, s. 297- 299. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.054
Palaioua, Kat; Zarolab, Antonio & Furnham, Adrian (2016)
The dark side of personality predicts positive and negative work attitudes
Personality and Individual Differences, 88, s. 12- 16. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.029
Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2015)
A big five facet analysis of a Paranoid Personality Disorder: The validity of the HDS Sceptical scale of subclinical paranoia
Journal of Individual Differences, 36(4), s. 199- 204. Doi: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000174
Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2015)
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Promotion at Work
PSYCHOLOGY, 6, s. 1510- 1515. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.612147
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2015)
The stability and change of malaise scores over 27 years: Findings from a nationally representative sample
Personality and Individual Differences, 79, s. 30- 34. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.027
Furnham, Adrian; Lee, Vanessa & Kolzeev, Vladimir (2015)
Mental health literacy and borderline personality disorder (BPD): what do the public “make” of those with BPD?
Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(2), s. 317- 324. Doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0936-7
Oluf, Gøtzsche-Astrup & Furnham, Adrian (2015)
The relationship between bright- and dark-side personality traits
Personality and Individual Differences, 87, s. 206- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.002
Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2015)
Associations between education, gender, social class personality traits, and religious faith and service attendance in a British cohort
Personality and Individual Differences, 86, s. 63- 66. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.014
Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2015)
Cognitive styles and performance on complex, structured tasks
Learning and Individual Differences, 42(Aug), s. 106- 109. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.07.013
King, James; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2015)
Sex Really Does Sell: The Recall of Sexual and Non-sexual Television Advertisements in Sexual and Non-sexual Programmes
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(2), s. 210- 216. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3095
Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Montgomery, Scott & Furnham, Adrian (2015)
Associations between familial factor, trait conscientiousness, gender and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood: Evidence from a British cohort
PLOS ONE, 10(5) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122701
Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie & Fenton-O’Creevy, Mark (2014)
Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population
Social Indicators Research, 123, s. 701- 711. Doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0756-x
Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism
Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 27(4), s. 410- 421. Doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.864388
Furnham, Adrian; Treglown, Luke, Hyde, Gillian & Trickey, Geoff (2014)
The Bright and Dark Side of Altruism: Demographic, Personality Traits, and Disorders Associated with Altruism
Journal of Business Ethics Doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2435-x
Furnham, Adrian; Richards, Steven, Rangel, Luis & Jones, Daniel N. (2014)
Measuring malevolence: Quantitative issues surrounding the Dark Triad of personality
Personality and Individual Differences, 67, s. 114- 121. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.001
Furnham, Adrian & Hamid, Aseel (2014)
Mental health literacy in non-western countries: A review of the recent literature
Mental Health Review Journal, 19(2), s. 84- 98. Doi: 10.1108/MHRJ-01-2013-0004
Furnham, Adrian (2014)
A bright side, facet analysis of histrionic personality disorder: the relationship between the HDS Colourful factor and the NEO-PI-R facets in a large adult sample
Journal of Social Psychology, 154(6), s. 527- 536. Doi: 10.1080/00224545.2014.953026
Cheng, Helen; Eysenck, Michael, Green, Andy & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Correlates of adult functional memory: Findings from a British cohort
Intelligence, 47(Nov-Dec), s. 134- 140. Doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2014.09.007
Palaiou, Kat & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between CEOs and staff in five work sectors
Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66(3), s. 173- 196. Doi: 10.1037/cpb0000010
Furnham, Adrian (2014)
How I got started: Curiosity and Dilettantism
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), s. 807- 808. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3020
Cheng, Helen; Green, Andy, Wolpert, Miranda, Deighton, Jessica & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Factors influencing adult quality of life: Findings from a nationally representative sample in the UK
Personality and Individual Differences, 68, s. 241- 246. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.026
Koutoufa, Iakovina & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Mental health literacy and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder
Psychiatry Research, 215(1), s. 223- 228. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.027
Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Increasing your intelligence: Entity and incremental beliefs about the multiple “intelligences”
Learning and Individual Differences, 32, s. 163- 167. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.001
Furnham, Adrian & Mansi, Angela (2014)
The self-assessment of the Cattell–Horn–Carroll broad stratum abilities
Learning and Individual Differences, 32, s. 233- 237. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.014
Furnham, Adrian; Hyde, Gillian & Trickey, Geoff (2014)
The dark side of career preference: dark side traits, motives, and values
Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(2), s. 106- 114. Doi: 10.1111/jasp.12205
Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2014)
The Dark Side of the MBTI: Psychological Type and Interpersonal Derailers
PSYCHOLOGY, 5(2), s. 166- 171. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.52026
Koutoufa, Iakovina & Furnham, Adrian (2014)
Psychiatric literacy: Lay beliefs of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 27(3), s. 277- 289. Doi: 10.1080/09515070.2014.897598
Furnham, Adrian & Milner, Rebecca (2013)
The impact of mood on customer behavior: Staff mood and environmental factors
Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20, s. 634- 641. Doi: 10.1016/j.jretconser.2013.06.001
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2013)
Correlates of Adult Binge Drinking: Evidence from a British Cohort
PLOS ONE, 8(11) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078838
Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2013)
Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity
PLOS ONE, 8(11) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079586
Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John & Ritchie, William (2013)
What it takes: Ability, demographic, bright and dark side trait correlates of years to promotion
Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), s. 952- 956. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.469
Leka, Jona; McClelland, A. & Furnham, Adrian (2013)
Memory for Sexual and Nonsexual Television Commercials as a Function of Viewing Context and Viewer Gender
Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(5), s. 584- 592. Doi: 10.1002/acp.2939
Martinsen, Øyvind; Kaufmann, Geir & Furnham, Adrian (2011)
Cognitive Style and Creativity
Runco, Mark A. & Pritzker, Steven R. (red.). Encyclopedia of Creativity, Two-Volume Set, 2nd Edition
Arrindell, Willem A.; Eisemann, Martin Raimund, Richter, Jörg, Oei, Tian P.S., Caballo, Vicente, Ende, Jan van der, Sanavio, Ezio, Bages, Nuri, Feldman, Lya, Torres, Barbara, Sica, Claudio, Iwawaki, Saburo, Edelmann, Robert J., Crozier, W.R., Furnham, Adrian & Hudson, Barbara (2003)
Phobic anxiety in 11 nations:I.Dimensional constancy of the five-factor model
Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(4), s. 461- 467. Doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00047-5
The Fear Survey Schedule-III (FSS-III) was administered to a total of 5491 students in Australia, East Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and Venezuela, and submitted to the multiple group method of confirmatory analysis (MGM) in order to determine the cross-national dimensional constancy of the five-factor model of self-assessed fears originally established in Dutch, British, and Canadian samples. The model comprises fears of bodily injury–illness–death, agoraphobic fears, social fears, fears of sexual and aggressive scenes, and harmless animals fears. Close correspondence between the factors was demonstrated across national samples. In each country, the corresponding scales were internally consistent, were intercorrelated at magnitudes comparable to those yielded in the original samples, and yielded (in 93% of the total number of 55 comparisons) sex differences in line with the usual finding (higher scores for females). In each country, the relatively largest sex differences were obtained on harmless animals fears. The organization of self-assessed fears is sufficiently similar across nations to warrant the use of the same weight matrix (scoring key) for the FSS-III in the different countries and to make cross-national comparisons feasible. This opens the way to further studies that attempt to predict (on an a priori basis) cross-national variations in fear levels with dimensions of national cultures.
Martinsen, Øyvind L.; Arnulf, Jan Ketil & Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Covid-19:Personligheten din har en overraskende stor effekt på hvordan du reagerer på myndighetenes smittevernregler
Furnham, Adrian & MacRae, Ian (2020)
A Psychometric Analysis of the High Potential Trait Inventory (HPTI).
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. PSYCHOLOGY, s. 1125- 1140.
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF RETIREMENT: PIPE AND SLIPPERS
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. European Financial Review, s. 42- 46.
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Publish or perish: rejection, scientometrics and academic success
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. Scientometrics Doi: 10.1007/s11192-020-03694-0
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Sex and Money: Do men and women use money differently
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. The European Business Review, s. 94- 98.
Furnham, Adrian; Treglown, Luke & Horne, George (2020)
The Psychology of Queuing
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. PSYCHOLOGY, 11(3), s. 480- 498. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2020.113033
Queuing is still a fundamental function of how many businesses operate, yet there is not a clear understanding to impact the queuing environment to increase the amount of time an individual is willing to wait, improving an individual’s queuing experience, as well as reduce frustration and reneging. This paper presents a synthesis of the academic literature on queuing phenomenon. In particular, the paper focuses on the social norms of queuing, how they are upheld, and reactions to when they are violated; and environmental moderators, examining the impact of factors such as queue length, presence of information, music, light, and scent. Issues like the effect of number of people in a queue, personal space and the ideal queuing environment are discussed. Finally, this paper addresses limitations within the current body of research as well as proposing an agenda for future research.
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Ability, Demographic and Personality Predictors of Work Success
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. PSYCHOLOGY, 11, s. 980- 991. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2020.116063
Furnham, Adrian (2020)
Chopping and Changing: Demographic, Bright and Dark Side Trait Correlates of Job Changes
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. PSYCHOLOGY, 11(1), s. 204- 216. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2020.111014
Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2019)
The nomological net of personality constructs, creative personality constructs, intelligence, and creative potential.
[Academic lecture]. 3rd World Conference on Personality (WAPP 2019).
Furnham, Adrian (2019)
Culture Shock: A Review of the Literature for Practitioners
[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. PSYCHOLOGY Doi: 10.4236/psych.2019.1013119
|1981||University of Oxford||Ph.D Dr. Philos.|
|1977||University of Strathclyde||Master of Science|
|1976||London School of Economics||Master Cand. Oecon|
|2009 - Present||BI Norwegian Business School||Adjunct Professor in Organisational Psychology.|
|1992 - Present||University of London||Professor|
|1988 - 1992||University of London||Reader|
|1981 - 1987||University of London||Lecturer|
|1980 - 1982||Pembroke College||Lecturer|