Faculty Profile

Adrian Furnham

Adjunct Professor - Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour


Akram, Zara; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

The effect of fear‐inducing content on memory for advertisements and on retroactive and proactive interference of programme information

Applied Cognitive Psychology Doi: 10.1002/acp.3409

The current study focused on whether fear‐inducing content in television advertisements leads to better memory for the advertisement but also impairs memory for programme information that either precedes the advertisements (retroactive interference) or that follows the advertisements (proactive interference). Fifty‐four participants (48 female) aged 18 to 55 watched a programme that had an advertisement break in the centre. This consisted of 6 advertisements with either fear‐inducing or nonfear‐inducing content. Participants were tested on their recall and recognition of the advertisement information as well as their recall of the first half and second half of the programme. The results indicated that fear‐inducing advertisements were better recalled than those that elicited no fear, and there was also evidence of proactive interference from fear‐inducing advertisements on programme recall. Limitations and implications of the study are discussed.

Furnham, Adrian & Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark (2018)

Personality and political orientation

Personality and Individual Differences, 129, s. 88- 91. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.03.020

This study examined the incremental validity of the Big-Five personality traits over primarily demographic factors in predicting Left-Right political orientation (PO) in a large British adult sample. Gender and trait Openness was most strongly correlated with PO. The regression indicated that females who were better educated, less religious and of higher social class were more Left-Wing. Personality traits doubled the variance accounted for (4% to 9%) indicating that Open, more Agreeable people were more Left-Wing and Introverted, more Conscientious people more Right-Wing. Agreeableness and Neuroticism showed an interaction with social class, such that for high social class, Left-Wing orientation increased with Agreeableness (but not for low social class); and for high social class, Left-Wing orientation increased with Neuroticism, whilst for low social class, Right-Wing orientation increased with Neuroticism

Furnham, Adrian & Treglown, Luke (2018)

High potential personality and intelligence

Personality and Individual Differences, 128(1), s. 81- 87. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.02.025

The present study investigated the relationship between six high flyer personality traits and intelligence measured at the domain and facet level. In all, 820 adults completed a multidimensional High Flyers Personality Inventory (measuring six traits) and a multidimensional intelligence test. Correlational analysis showed four traits were related to specific measures of IQ; particularly Conscientiousness, Risk Approach, Ambiguity Acceptance, and Competitiveness. Regressions showed the five IQ measures were differently related to the six high flyer traits, accounting for between three and 7% of the variance. Additionally, structural equation models (SEM) demonstrated that these relationships differ between male and female participants. Results are discussed in terms of the literature on the relationship between preference (personality) and power (ability) tests. Limitations are acknowledged.

Kou, Siyi; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

The effect of background music and noise on the cognitive test performance of Chinese introverts and extraverts

Psychology of Music, 46(1), s. 125- 135. Doi: 10.1177/0305735617704300

Treglown, Luke; Zivkov, Katarina, Zarola, Anthony & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

Intention to quit and the role of dark personality and perceived organizational support: A moderation and mediation model

PLoS ONE Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195155

This study investigated the role of individual differences (dark personality) and situational factors (perceived organisational support) in explaining intention to quit. Four hundred and fifty-one (50 of which females) ambulance personnel completed three questionnaires (Hogan Development Survey; Perceived Organisational Support Survey; and a single item Intention to Quit measure) as a part of a selection and development assessment. Employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, and Mischievous, but low on Colourful were found to have greater intentions to quit. Additionally, employees high on Excitable, Sceptical, Reserved, and Leisurely, but low on Dutiful and Diligent had lower perceptions of organisational support. Structural Equation Modelling revealed that perceived organisational support plays both a mediating and moderating role on dark personality and intention to quit. Theoretical implications of personality’s role in perceived organisational support and intention to quit are discussed.

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2018)

Conscientiousness and occupational prestige as independent predictors of the change of tobacco use in adulthood

Personality and Individual Differences, 127, s. 79- 84. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2018.02.003

Swami, Viren & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

Breast size dissatisfaction, but not body dissatisfaction, is associated with breast self-examination frequency and breast change detection in British women

Body image, 24, s. 76- 81.

Barron, David; Furnham, Adrian, Weis, Laura, Morgan, Kevin, Towell, Tony & Swami, Viren (2018)

The relationship between schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs via cognitive processes

Psychiatry Research, 259, s. 15- 20. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.10.001

This study sought to replicate previous work showing relationships between components of schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs, and extend it by examining the mediating role of cognitive processes. An international online sample of 411 women and men (mean age = 35.41 years) completed measures of the schizotypal facets of Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference, conspiracist beliefs, and cognitive processes related to need for cognition, analytic thinking, and cognitive insight. Path analysis confirmed the associations between both schizotypal facets and conspiracist beliefs in the present sample. Confirmatory evidence was found for the association between analytic thinking and conspiracist beliefs, and results also suggested an association between cognitive insight and conspiracist beliefs. Cognitive insight also mediated the link between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and Ideas of Reference with conspiracist beliefs. However, analytic thinking provided a mediating link to conspiracy ideation for Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and not Ideas of Reference. Finally, there was an association between Odd Beliefs or Magical Thinking and need for cognition, but this path did not extend to conspiracist beliefs. These results suggest possible mediating roles for analytic thinking and self-certainty between schizotypy and conspiracist beliefs.

Fenton-O'Creevy, Mark; Dibb, Sally & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

Antecedents and consequences of chronic impulsive buying: Can impulsive buying be understood as dysfunctional self‐regulation?

Psychology & Marketing, 35(3) Doi: 10.1002/mar.21078

Researchers reach different conclusions about the functional or dysfunctional nature of impulsive buying behavior. While many note the use of impulsive buying as a form of mood regulation, there is disagreement about whether this is functional or dysfunctional and the extent to which it causes financial harm. This paper draws on data from a U.K. national survey sample (N = 109,472) to contribute to these debates. Study results suggest that impulsive buying is more common for those who have most need to regulate mood and who have the least effective emotion regulation strategies. This suggests that impulsive buying may be understood as a failure of self‐regulation in relation to long‐term goals and as a strategy for mood regulation. Contrary to some prior claims in the retail management and marketing research literature, the study shows higher levels of impulsive buying to be associated with more adverse financial outcomes (which are not confined to the most extreme manifestations of the trait). While ineffective emotion regulation is associated with higher propensity to buy impulsively, the findings also suggest that effective emotion regulation may to some extent mitigate the adverse consequences of the propensity to buy impulsively. The implications for ethical management, research, and policy are considered.

Swami, Viren; Barron, David, Weis, Laura & Furnham, Adrian (2018)

To Brexit or not to Brexit: The roles of Islamophobia, conspiracist beliefs, and integrated threat in voting intentions for the United Kingdom European Union membership referendum

British Journal of Psychology, 109(1), s. 156- 179. Doi: 10.1111/bjop.12252

We used an identities approach to examine voting intentions in the June 2016 UK referendum on membership of the European Union (EU). In April 2016, 303 British adults (58.7% women, age M = 34.73) indicated their voting intentions for the referendum and completed measures of identification with the national in-group, perceived threat from Muslim immigrants, belief in Islamophobic conspiracy narratives, Islamophobia, general conspiracist beliefs, ambiguity tolerance, and belief in a clash of civilizations. Path and mediation analyses indicated that greater belief in Islamophobic conspiracy theories mediated the link between Islamophobia and intention to vote to leave. Islamophobia and Islamophobic conspiracist beliefs also mediated the effects of perceived threat from Muslims on voting intentions. Other variables acted as antecedents of perceived threat or Islamophobic conspiracy narratives. These findings highlight the role that identity-based cognitions may have played in shaping voting intentions for the UK EU referendum.

Furnham, Adrian; Tommasi, Marco, Grassi, Paola, Balsamo, Michela, Picconi, Laura & Saggino, Aristide (2018)

Correlations Between Personality, Affective and Filial Self-Efficacy Beliefs, and Psychological Well-Being in a Sample of Italian Adolescents.

Psychological Reports, 121(1), s. 59- 78. Doi: 10.1177/0033294117720698

Adolescence is a critical period for the emergence of a balanced personality in adults. Extraversion, neuroticism, and affective self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation showed to be good predictors of psychological well-being in adolescents. We analyzed the association between affective self-efficacy beliefs, personality traits, and psychological well-being of 179 Italian adolescents. We also analyzed the connection between adolescents' filial self-efficacy beliefs and psychological well-being and possible moderating effects of self-efficacy beliefs on personality traits. Results show that extraversion, neuroticism, and self-efficacy beliefs in emotion regulation are correlated with psychological well-being, while filial self-efficacy does not. Self-efficacy beliefs do not show significant moderating effects on personality traits, even if self-efficacy beliefs in expressing positive emotions reduce negative characteristics of individuals with high level of psychoticism.

Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2017)

Personality correlates of passive-aggressiveness: a NEO-PI-R domain and facet analysis of the HDS Leisurely scale

Journal of Mental Health, 26(6), s. 496- 501. Doi: 10.3109/09638237.2016.1167853

Han, Da Eun; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

The Effects of Programme Context on Memory for Humorous Television Commercials

Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(6), s. 586- 592. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3354

This study investigated the effects of programme context on memory for humorous television advertisements in South Korean participants. Humorous and non-humorous Korean advertisements were embedded within two programme contexts; humorous and non-humorous. When the programme ratings of humour, enjoyment and involvement were higher, unaided recall was poorer. In addition, unaided recall of the advertisements was better when they were embedded within a non-humorous programme. However, there was no significant programme advertisement interaction effect. Overall, both free and cued-recall were higher for humorous advertisements than for the non-humorous advertisements. The findings are discussed in terms of cultural differences and changes in television programmes and advertising over time.

Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Dark side correlates of job reliability and stress tolerance in two large samples

Personality and Individual Differences, 117, s. 255- 259. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.020

This study set out to examine how dark-side traits (derailers) are related to Stress Tolerance and Job Reliability. Over 8000 adult Britons from two separate assessment centres completed two validated questionnaires: the first measured the “dark-side” traits which can derail one’s career (HDS: Hogan Development Survey) and the second two established, criterion-related, scales called the Occupational Scales (HPI: Hogan Personality Inventory): Stress Tolerance which is associated with the ability to handle pressure well and not be tense and anxious; Job Reliability which identifies people who are honest, dependable and responsive to supervision. Hierarchical regressions showed that some “dark-side” factors like Excitable and Cautious were related to both Occupational variables while being Leisurely, Bold, Mischievous and Colourful were powerful negative predictors of work reliability. The Moving Against People factor was the strongest predictor of Stress Tolerance and Reliability while the Moving Away from People factor was also a powerful predictor of Reliability. The results highlight “dark-side” traits (Excitable, Cautious, Mischievous, Imaginative) which were most related to two crucial features of successful management.

Toverljani, Anita; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

The Effect of Sexual Programme Content on the Recall of Foreign Sexual and Non-sexual Advertisements

Applied Cognitive Psychology, 31(2), s. 199- 206. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3317

Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Montgomery, Scott, Kornilaki, Ekaterina N., Tsivrikos, Dimitrios & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

The associations between personality traits, education, occupation and the occurrence of eczema in adulthood

Journal of Health Psychology, 22(7), s. 916- 924. Doi: 10.1177/1359105315618457

There were 5,834 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, the Big-Five Factor personality traits, occupational levels, and eczema ( measured at age 50 years). Results showed that eczema in childhood, educational achievement and occupational levels were significantly associated with the occurrence of reported eczema in adulthood. Emotionally Stable people (non Neurotic) were less likely to have eczema, but those with high Agreeableness and Openness more likely to have eczema. Childhood cognitive ability was significantly and positively associated with eczema in adulthood

Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Personality traits neuroticism and openness as well as early abnormal eye conditions as predictors of the occurrence of eye problems in adulthood

Health Psychology Open, 4(2) Doi: 10.1177/2055102917716205

This study set out to examine the associations between psychological, biomedical and socio-demographic factors in childhood and adulthood associated with the occurrence of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood. In total, 5706 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, cognitive ability accessed at age 11years, abnormal eye conditions by the age of 16 years diagnosed by medical professionals, educational qualifications obtained at age 33 years, the Big Five Factor personality traits measured at age 50 years, current occupational levels and self-reported eye conditions at age 54 years were included in the study. Logistic regression analysis showed that among all the factors examined early abnormal eye conditions, traits neuroticism and openness as well as sex were the significant predictors of self-reported eye conditions in adulthood

Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Personality differences in managers who have, and have not, worked abroad

European Management Journal, 35(1), s. 39- 45. Doi: 10.1016/j.emj.2016.10.002

Jeon, Mina & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Mental health literacy in South Korea

International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 10(4), s. 353- 366. Doi: 10.1080/17542863.2017.1322623

The study aimed to examine the Korean public’s recognition of mental disorders, attitudes towards mental disorders and knowledge and beliefs about professional or self-help for mental disorders. In all 253 participants were presented with case vignettes describing bulimia nervosa, bipolar disorder, substance addiction, depression, schizophrenia, OCD, ADHD, anorexia and social phobia. Participants were asked to identify described mental disorders in the vignettes, to rate each character’s adjustment to live with the mental problems and to rate the likelihood of suggesting several types of help for each character. Participants noted their previous history of exposure to mental disorders. Substance addiction was recognized the most (80.2%) and anorexia the least (10.7%). Participants responded the psychologist/psychiatrist’s help the most helpful. Of the nine mental disorders, the recognition of six mental disorders were significantly predicted by predictors included in this study, and amongst the factors, higher level of education was found to be the most significant predictor for high recognition of mental disorders. Compared to other countries, Korean’s ability to recognize mental disorders was poorer than British and there was difference between South Korean and other Eastern countries in terms of ability to recognize mental disorders even if they share similar culture. Limitations of this study were recognized

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)

Factors affecting adult trait Neuroticism in a nationally representative sample

Psychiatry Research, 256, s. 253- 257. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.06.030

This study explores factors in childhood and adulthood that affect adult trait Neuroticism in a large, nationally representative sample. 5785 participants provided information on family social background measured at birth; Intelligence assessed at 11 years; Behavioural problems measured at 11 years; Malaise assessed at 23 years; Educational qualifications obtained at 33 years; Occupational levels at 42 years, and personality trait Neuroticism measured at 50 years. Structural equation modelling showed that sex, childhood Behavioural Problems, childhood Intelligence, Malaise in early adulthood, and Occupation were all significant and independent predictors of adult trait Neuroticism. Parental social status was significantly and negatively associated with Malaise at age 23, but was not a significant predictor of trait Neuroticism at age 50 years. Education predicted Neuroticism mainly through occupation. The strongest predictor of trait Neuroticism at 50 years was Malaise measured at 23 years, with a corrected correlation of r = .42 over the 27 year period. The results suggest some underlying biological/genetic mechanism.

Cheng, Helen; Green, Andy, Chapman, Benjamin P., Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Educational achievement and traits emotional stability and agreeableness as predictors of the occurrence of backache in adulthood

Personality and Individual Differences, 117, s. 205- 209. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.06.008

This study investigated the associations between psychological as well as social factors in childhood and adulthood and the occurrence of adulthood back pain in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The analytic sample comprises 5,698 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at age 11, educational qualifications measured at age 33, personality traits were assessed at age 50, occupational levels, and back pain measured at age 54. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that among all socio-demographic and psychological factors examined, only the highest educational qualification (OR=0.62: 0.41-0.93, p<.05) and traits emotional stability (OR=0.76: 0.71-0.83, p<.001) and agreeableness (OR=1.10: 1.01-1.21, p<.05) were significant predictors of the occurrence of back pain in adulthood. No significant sex differences were found for the prevalence of back pain in adulthood.

Wickstead, Robert & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Comparing mental health literacy and physical health literacy: an exploratory study

Journal of Mental Health, 26(5), s. 449- 456. Doi: 10.1080/09638237.2017.1294743

Background: This study compared mental health and physical health literacy using five health problems from each area. Aims: The aim was to determine whether the same group had better physical than mental health literacy Method: A sample of 263 participants completed an online questionnaire requiring them to name a problem/illness described in 10 vignettes and suggest treatment options. Five vignettes described mental health problems (anxiety, bipolar-disorder, depression, OCPD and schizophrenia) and five physical problems (angina, COPD, diabetes, a heart attack, and sinusitis). Participants were also asked to rate their sympathy and estimates of prevalence for each disorder. Results: Recognition of the mental health disorders was superior compared recognition of the physical disorders. Analysis of treatment beliefs, sympathy and prevalence ratings also showed significant differences between disorders. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of education and the lack of public knowledge regarding major physical health conditions.

Lahrach, Y & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Are modern health worries associated with medical conspiracy theories?

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 99, s. 89- 94. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.06.004

This study was concerned with whether Medical Conspiracy Theories (MCTs), along with other variables (demographics, ideology and health perceptions) are associated with Modern Health Worries (MHWs). MCTs were significantly associated with MHWs over and above all other variables. Older individuals, with more religious and right-wing beliefs had higher MHWs. In addition, those who used Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) and individuals who perceived their mental health as worse than their peers were also more likely to display higher MHWs. Implications for helping health professions understand their patients' health-related beliefs and choices were discussed.

Swami, Viren; Arthey, Elizabeth & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Perceptions of plagiarisers: The influence of target physical attractiveness, transgression severity, and sex on attributions of guilt and punishment

Body image, 22, s. 144- 147. Doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.06.009

Galliford, Natasha & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Individual difference factors and beliefs in medical and political conspiracy theories

Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 58(5), s. 422- 428. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12382

This study examined the relationship between a series of individual difference measures and belief in political and medical conspiracy theories. Participants (N=323) rated 20 conspiracy theories (10 medical, 10 political) and completed a set of questionnaires. Belief in political conspiracies was strongly positively correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. Belief in both conspiracy types was correlated with low self-esteem, low Conscientiousness, more right-wing political views, younger age, and greater belief in the benefits of Alternative Medicine. It was also correlated with religiousness and gender. Low Emotional Stability and Agreeableness were also correlated with belief in political conspiracies, and higher education level was correlated with belief in medical conspiracies. The findings generally demonstrated support for a monological belief system. Implications and limitations are discussed.

Teodorescu, Alexandra; Furnham, Adrian & MacRae, Ian (2017)

Trait correlates of success at work

International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 25(1), s. 36- 42. Doi: 10.1111/ijsa.12158

Purpose: Identifying and developing high potential individuals is fundamental to successful companies and organisations. The present study focuses on the personality traits of high potential individuals. Design: The High Potential Traits Inventory (MacRae, 2012; MacRae & Furnham, 2014) was used to investigate associations between personality traits and subjective and objective measures of career success, in a sample of 383 employed individuals. Findings: Results indicate High Potential Traits Inventory (HPTI) personality traits relate to subjective and objective measures of success with Conscientiousness being the strongest predictor. The findings of the current study are consistent with previous research on High Flyers. Implications: Implications of the current study are discussed, suggesting a clearer operationalization of success is crucial for understanding the underlying mechanisms which lead from personality to potential. Originality/Value: This the validation of a new, robust and succinct measure designed to identify High Flyers in the workplace.

Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Early indicators of self-esteem in teenagers: Findings from a nationally representative sample

Personality and Individual Differences, 116(Oct.), s. 139- 143. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2017.04.037

This study explored a longitudinal data set of 3,096 British sixteen year olds with data collected in 1970, 1980, and 1986. It examined how parental social status at birth; intelligence, locus of control and behavioural problems all measured at aged 10 years influenced teenage self-esteem measured at aged 16 years. There were two related measures of self-esteem: General and School setting. Correlational analysis showed locus of control beliefs, childhood intelligence scores, behavioural problems and parental social status were all significantly related to the self-esteem measures. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood locus of control, childhood intelligence and behavioural problems were significant and independent predictors of self-esteem at age 16 years. Females had higher academic but lower general self-esteem compared to males. Limitations and implications of this study are considered.

Cheng, Helen; Montgomery, Scott, Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2017)

Emotional stability, conscientiousness, and self-reported hypertension in adulthood

Personality and Individual Differences, 115, s. 159- 163. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.034

Objective: To investigate social and psychological factors in childhood and adulthood associated with self-reported hypertension in adulthood. Method: Using data from the National Child Development Study, a nationally representative sample of 17,415 babies born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 11, 33, and 50 years of age. Self-reported diagnosed hypertension by 50 years was the outcome measure. Results: In total, 5,753 participants with complete data on parental social class at birth, childhood cognitive ability tests scores at 11 years, educational qualifications at 33 years, personality traits, occupational levels, and self-reported hypertension (all measured at age 50 years) were included in the study. Using logistic regression analyses, results showed that sex (OR=0.60: 0.49-0.73, p<.001), educational qualifications (OR=0.59: 0.37-0.92, p<.05), and traits emotional stability (OR=0.84: 0.77-0.91, p<.001) and conscientiousness (OR=0.89: 0.82-0.98, p<.05) were all significantly associated with the occurrence of self-reported hypertension in adulthood. Conclusion: Both psychological factors and socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with self-reported hypertension in adulthood.

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)

Socio-Demographic Indicators, Intelligence,and Locus of Control as Predictors of Adult Financial Well-Being

Journal of Intelligence, 5(2) Doi: 10.3390/jintelligence5020011

The current study investigated a longitudinal data set of 4790 adults examining a set of socio-demographic and psychological factors that influence adult financial well-being. Parental social status (at birth), childhood intelligence and self-esteem (at age 10), locus of control (at age 16), psychological distress (age 30), educational qualifications (age 34), current occupation, weekly net income, house ownership status, and number of rooms (all measured at age 38 years) were examined. Structural Equation Modelling showed that childhood intelligence, locus of control, education and occupation were all independent predictors of adult financial well-being for both men and women. Parental social status and psychological distress were also significant predictors of the outcome variable for men, but not for women. Whereas for women, in comparison to men, the effects of current occupation and childhood intelligence on the outcome variable appeared to be stronger. The strongest predictor of adult financial well-being was current occupational prestige, followed by educational achievement. The gender deferential of financial well-being indicators and its implications are discussed

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2017)

Childhood Cognitive Ability Predicts Adult Financial Well-Being

Journal of Intelligence, 5(3) Doi: 10.3390/jintelligence5010003

This study set out to investigate to what extent childhood cognitive ability, along with personality traits, education and occupational status, as well as marital status influence adult financial success. Data were drawn from a large, prospective birth cohort in the UK, the National Child Development Study (NCDS). The analytic sample was comprised of 4537 cohort members with data on parental social class (at birth), cognitive ability (at age 11), educational qualifications (at age 33), personality traits (at age 50), current marital status and occupational prestige, and salary/wage earning level (all measured at age 54). Correlational results showed that parental social class, childhood cognitive ability, traits extraversion, emotional stability, conscientiousness, and openness, being married positively, being divorced or separated negatively, education and occupation as well as gender were all significantly associated with adult earning ability (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Effect sizes for the relationship between intelligence and income was moderate. Results of a multiple regression analysis showed that childhood cognitive ability, traits conscientiousness and openness, educational qualifications and occupational prestige were significant and independent predictors of adult earning ability accounting for 30% of the total variance. There was also a gender effect on the outcome variable. Numerous limitations are noted.

Lee, Cheuk Yan; Furnham, Adrian & Merritt, Christopher (2017)

Effect of directness of exposure and trauma type on Mental Health Literacy of PTSD

Journal of Mental Health, 26(3), s. 257- 263. Doi: 10.1080/09638237.2016.1276531

Background: Research has demonstrated that Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is one of the most widely recognized mental disorders (Furnham & Lousley, 2012), but recognition is affected by trauma type (Merritt et al., 2014). Aims: The current study investigated the effect of direct versus indirect exposure to traumatic event and trauma types on Mental Health Literacy (MHL) of PTSD. Methods: 233 participants were asked to identify the mental health problem after presentation of an unlabeled vignette describing a character experiencing PTSD symptoms. The six vignettes described the same symptoms but differed in directness (direct/indirect exposure) and trauma type (rape, military combat or man-made disaster). It was hypothesized that [1] recognition rate would be higher in direct than indirect conditions, and [2] higher in military combat, followed by man-made disaster, and lowest in rape condition. Results: Overall, correct recognition of PTSD was 42.5%. Recognition in direct exposure vignettes was significantly higher than indirect, supporting the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis was only partly supported. While PTSD recognition in rape vignettes was significantly lower than the other two scenarios, no difference was found between combat and man-made disaster trauma types. Conclusions: Our findings implied under-recognition of PTSD, with lack of awareness of different causes of PTSD and of PTSD from indirect trauma exposure. The latter finding is important in the light of DSM-V revisions to diagnostic criteria for PTSD.

Yang, Jeremy; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The effect of background music on the cognitive performance of musicians: A pilot study

Psychology of Music, 44(5), s. 1202- 1208. Doi: 10.1177/0305735615592265

Gøtzsche-Astrup, Oluf; Jakobsen, Joan & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The higher you climb: Dark side personality and job level

Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(6), s. 535- 541. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12305

Furnham, Adrian; Gee, Marcus & Weis, Laura (2016)

Knowledge of mental illnesses: Two studies using a new test

Psychiatry Research, 244(Oct.), s. 363- 369. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.06.058

Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Green, Andy, Chapman, Benjamin P., Kornilaki, Ekaterina N. & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

Childhood onset of migraine, gender, parental social class, and trait neuroticism as predictors of the prevalence of migraine in adulthood

Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 88, s. 54- 58. Doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.07.012

Cheng, Helen; Deighton, Jessica, Wolpert, Miranda, Chapman, Benjamin P., Kornilaki, Ekaterina N., Treglown, Luke & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

Hay fever in childhood, traits Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as independent predictors of the occurence of hay fever in adulthood

Journal of Health Psychology, 21(10), s. 2367- 2375. Doi: 10.1177/1359105315576784

Treglown, Luke; Palaiou, Kat, Zarola, Anthony & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The dark side of resilience and burnout: A moderation-mediation model

PLoS ONE, 11(6) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156279

Soh, Melinda; Zarola, Antonio, Palaiou, Kat & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

Work-related well-being

Health Psychology Open, 3(1), s. 1- 11. Doi: 10.1177/2055102916628380

Storek, Josephine & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The role of gender, task success probability estimation and scores as predictors of the domain-masculine intelligence type (DMIQ)

Learning and individual differences, 50(Aug.), s. 23- 29. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2016.06.011

Furnham, Adrian; Humphries, Chris & Leung Zheng, Edward (2016)

Can successful sales people become successful managers? Differences in motives and derailers across two jobs

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(3), s. 252- 268. Doi: 10.1037/cpb0000060

Furnham, Adrian; Ritchie, William & Lay, Alixe (2016)

Beliefs about the causes and cures of depression

International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(5), s. 415- 424. Doi: 10.1177/0020764016644279

Lui, Christopher; Wong, Cheuk & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

Mental health literacy in Hong Kong

International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(6), s. 505- 511. Doi: 10.1177/0020764016651291

Martinsen, Øyvind L.; Furnham, Adrian & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)

An Integrated Perspective on Insight

Journal of experimental psychology. General, 145(10), s. 1319- 1332. Doi: 10.1037/xge0000208

Grover, Simmy & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

Coaching as a developmental intervention in organisations: A systematic review of its effectiveness and the mechanisms underlying It

PLoS ONE, 11:0159137(7) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0159137

Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The big-five personality traits, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and educational qualifications as predictors of tobacco use in a nationally representative sample

PLoS ONE, 11(1) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0145552

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2016)

Childhood intelligence, self-esteem, early trait neuroticism and behaviour adjustment as predictors of locus of control in teenagers

Personality and Individual Differences, 95, s. 178- 182. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.054

Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2016)

A Big Five facet analysis of a psychopath: The validity of the HDS mischievous scale of sub-clinical psychopathy

Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 57(2), s. 117- 121. Doi: 10.1111/sjop.12260

Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The Assimilator-Explorer styles and creativity

Personality and Individual Differences, 98, s. 297- 299. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.054

Palaioua, Kat; Zarolab, Antonio & Furnham, Adrian (2016)

The dark side of personality predicts positive and negative work attitudes

Personality and Individual Differences, 88, s. 12- 16. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.029

Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2015)

A big five facet analysis of a Paranoid Personality Disorder: The validity of the HDS Sceptical scale of subclinical paranoia

Journal of Individual Differences, 36(4), s. 199- 204. Doi: 10.1027/1614-0001/a000174

Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2015)

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Promotion at Work

Psychology, 6, s. 1510- 1515. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2015.612147

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2015)

The stability and change of malaise scores over 27 years: Findings from a nationally representative sample

Personality and Individual Differences, 79, s. 30- 34. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.01.027

Furnham, Adrian; Lee, Vanessa & Kolzeev, Vladimir (2015)

Mental health literacy and borderline personality disorder (BPD): what do the public “make” of those with BPD?

Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50(2), s. 317- 324. Doi: 10.1007/s00127-014-0936-7

Oluf, Gøtzsche-Astrup & Furnham, Adrian (2015)

The relationship between bright- and dark-side personality traits

Personality and Individual Differences, 87, s. 206- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.002

Furnham, Adrian & Cheng, Helen (2015)

Associations between education, gender, social class personality traits, and religious faith and service attendance in a British cohort

Personality and Individual Differences, 86, s. 63- 66. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2015.06.014

Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Furnham, Adrian (2015)

Cognitive styles and performance on complex, structured tasks

Learning and individual differences, 42(Aug), s. 106- 109. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2015.07.013

King, James; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2015)

Sex Really Does Sell: The Recall of Sexual and Non-sexual Television Advertisements in Sexual and Non-sexual Programmes

Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29(2), s. 210- 216. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3095

Cheng, Helen; Treglown, Luke, Montgomery, Scott & Furnham, Adrian (2015)

Associations between familial factor, trait conscientiousness, gender and the occurrence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood: Evidence from a British cohort

PLoS ONE, 10(5) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0122701

Furnham, Adrian; von Stumm, Sophie & Fenton-O’Creevy, Mark (2014)

Sex Differences in Money Pathology in the General Population

Social Indicators Research, 123, s. 701- 711. Doi: 10.1007/s11205-014-0756-x

Reynolds, James; McClelland, Alastair & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

An investigation of cognitive test performance across conditions of silence, background noise and music as a function of neuroticism

Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 27(4), s. 410- 421. Doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.864388

Furnham, Adrian; Treglown, Luke, Hyde, Gillian & Trickey, Geoff (2014)

The Bright and Dark Side of Altruism: Demographic, Personality Traits, and Disorders Associated with Altruism

Journal of Business Ethics Doi: 10.1007/s10551-014-2435-x

Furnham, Adrian; Richards, Steven, Rangel, Luis & Jones, Daniel N. (2014)

Measuring malevolence: Quantitative issues surrounding the Dark Triad of personality

Personality and Individual Differences, 67, s. 114- 121. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.001

Furnham, Adrian & Hamid, Aseel (2014)

Mental health literacy in non-western countries: A review of the recent literature

Mental Health Review Journal, 19(2), s. 84- 98. Doi: 10.1108/MHRJ-01-2013-0004

Furnham, Adrian (2014)

A bright side, facet analysis of histrionic personality disorder: the relationship between the HDS Colourful factor and the NEO-PI-R facets in a large adult sample

Journal of Social Psychology, 154(6), s. 527- 536. Doi: 10.1080/00224545.2014.953026

Cheng, Helen; Eysenck, Michael, Green, Andy & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Correlates of adult functional memory: Findings from a British cohort

Intelligence, 47(Nov-Dec), s. 134- 140. Doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2014.09.007

Palaiou, Kat & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Are bosses unique? Personality facet differences between CEOs and staff in five work sectors

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66(3), s. 173- 196. Doi: 10.1037/cpb0000010

Furnham, Adrian (2014)

How I got started: Curiosity and Dilettantism

Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28(5), s. 807- 808. Doi: 10.1002/acp.3020

Cheng, Helen; Green, Andy, Wolpert, Miranda, Deighton, Jessica & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Factors influencing adult quality of life: Findings from a nationally representative sample in the UK

Personality and Individual Differences, 68, s. 241- 246. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.04.026

Koutoufa, Iakovina & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Mental health literacy and obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

Psychiatry Research, 215(1), s. 223- 228. Doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.10.027

Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Increasing your intelligence: Entity and incremental beliefs about the multiple “intelligences”

Learning and individual differences, 32, s. 163- 167. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.001

Furnham, Adrian & Mansi, Angela (2014)

The self-assessment of the Cattell–Horn–Carroll broad stratum abilities

Learning and individual differences, 32, s. 233- 237. Doi: 10.1016/j.lindif.2014.03.014

Furnham, Adrian; Hyde, Gillian & Trickey, Geoff (2014)

The dark side of career preference: dark side traits, motives, and values

Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 44(2), s. 106- 114. Doi: 10.1111/jasp.12205

Furnham, Adrian & Crump, John (2014)

The Dark Side of the MBTI: Psychological Type and Interpersonal Derailers

Psychology, 5(2), s. 166- 171. Doi: 10.4236/psych.2014.52026

Koutoufa, Iakovina & Furnham, Adrian (2014)

Psychiatric literacy: Lay beliefs of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder

Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 27(3), s. 277- 289. Doi: 10.1080/09515070.2014.897598

Furnham, Adrian & Milner, Rebecca (2013)

The impact of mood on customer behavior: Staff mood and environmental factors

Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 20, s. 634- 641.

Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2013)

Correlates of Adult Binge Drinking: Evidence from a British Cohort

PLoS ONE, 8(11) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078838

Cheng, Helen & Furnham, Adrian (2013)

Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity

PLoS ONE, 8(11) Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079586

Furnham, Adrian; Crump, John & Ritchie, William (2013)

What it takes: Ability, demographic, bright and dark side trait correlates of years to promotion

Personality and Individual Differences, 55(8), s. 952- 956. Doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2013.07.469

Leka, Jona; McClelland, A. & Furnham, Adrian (2013)

Memory for Sexual and Nonsexual Television Commercials as a Function of Viewing Context and Viewer Gender

Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(5), s. 584- 592. Doi: 10.1002/acp.2939

Martinsen, Øyvind; Kaufmann, Geir & Furnham, Adrian (2011)

Cognitive Style and Creativity

Runco, Mark A. & Pritzker, Steven R. (red.). Encyclopedia of Creativity, Two-Volume Set, 2nd Edition

Arrindell, Willem A.; Eisemann, Martin Raimund, Richter, Jörg, Oei, Tian P.S., Caballo, Vicente, Ende, Jan van der, Sanavio, Ezio, Bages, Nuri, Feldman, Lya, Torres, Barbara, Sica, Claudio, Iwawaki, Saburo, Edelmann, Robert J., Crozier, W.R., Furnham, Adrian & Hudson, Barbara (2003)

Phobic anxiety in 11 nations:I.Dimensional constancy of the five-factor model

Behaviour Research and Therapy, 41(4), s. 461- 467. Doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(02)00047-5

The Fear Survey Schedule-III (FSS-III) was administered to a total of 5491 students in Australia, East Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hungary, Italy, Japan, Spain, Sweden, and Venezuela, and submitted to the multiple group method of confirmatory analysis (MGM) in order to determine the cross-national dimensional constancy of the five-factor model of self-assessed fears originally established in Dutch, British, and Canadian samples. The model comprises fears of bodily injury–illness–death, agoraphobic fears, social fears, fears of sexual and aggressive scenes, and harmless animals fears. Close correspondence between the factors was demonstrated across national samples. In each country, the corresponding scales were internally consistent, were intercorrelated at magnitudes comparable to those yielded in the original samples, and yielded (in 93% of the total number of 55 comparisons) sex differences in line with the usual finding (higher scores for females). In each country, the relatively largest sex differences were obtained on harmless animals fears. The organization of self-assessed fears is sufficiently similar across nations to warrant the use of the same weight matrix (scoring key) for the FSS-III in the different countries and to make cross-national comparisons feasible. This opens the way to further studies that attempt to predict (on an a priori basis) cross-national variations in fear levels with dimensions of national cultures.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
1981 University of Oxford Ph.D Dr. Philos.
1977 University of Strathclyde Master of Science
1976 London School of Economics Master Cand. Oecon
1975 Natal University M.A.
1972 Natal University B.A.
1981 University of Oxford Ph.D Dr. Philos.
1977 University of Strathclyde Master of Science
1976 London School of Economics Master Cand. Oecon
1975 Natal University M.A.
1972 Natal University B.A.
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2009 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Adjunct Professor in Organisational Psychology.
1992 - Present University of London Professor
1988 - 1992 University of London Reader
1981 - 1987 University of London Lecturer
1980 - 1982 Pembroke College Lecturer
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