Employee Profile

Thorvald Hærem

Professor - Department of Leadership and Organizational Behaviour


Thorvald Haerem earned his Ph.D. at Copenhagen Business School in Denmark and is currently an Associate Professor of Organization Psychology at Norwegian School of Management. His research interests include technology in organizations, organizational and individual routines, behavioral decision making, and expertise. He has published his research in journals as Journal of Applied Psychology, Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, Organizational Studies, and Organization Science.
Teaching areas
Thorvald Haerem is resonsible for graduate course in Judgment and Decision Making, Creativity, & Organizational Science at the Norwegian School of Management

Area of Expertise


Hærem, Thorvald; Jeong, Yooeun & Hansson, Mathias (2021)

Complexity in Routine Dynamics

Hærem, Thorvald; Feldman, Martha S., Pentland, Brian T., D'Adderio, Luciana, Dittrich, Katharina, Rerup, Claus & Seidl, David (red.). Cambridge Handbook of Routine Dynamics

Hærem, Thorvald; Feldman, Martha S., Pentland, Brian T., D'Adderio, Luciana, Dittrich, Katharina, Rerup, Claus & Seidl, David (2021)

Cambridge Handbook of Routine Dynamics

Cambridge University Press.

Hansson, Mathias; Hærem, Thorvald & Pentland, Brian T. (2021)

The effect of repertoire, routinization and enacted complexity: Explaining task performance through patterns of action

Organization Studies Doi: 10.1177/01708406211069438

Larsson, Ulf Gerry; Alvinius, Aida, Bakken, Bjørn & Hærem, Thorvald (2021)

Social psychological aspects of inter-organizational collaboration in a total defense context: a literature review

International Journal of Organizational Analysis Doi: 10.1108/IJOA-02-2021-2626

Purpose –This paper aims to systematically review the extant research on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context. Design/methodology/approach –A systematic scoping studies review was performed. Peer-reviewed articles were searched in PsycInfo and Sociological Abstracts. Inclusion criteria were met by 25 articles. Findings –Four higher-order categories with underpinning categories were derived in the analysis. They were modeled as follows: antecedent conditions affect, informal processes and practical efforts, which, in turn, affect inter-organizational trust and collaboration. These higher-order categories are all influenced by formal organizational aspects and the society in which they arefound. Research limitations/implications –The existing literature covering the chosen study focus is limited. Further studies are needed and thepresented model can serve asa road map. Practical implications –Aseries of questions derived from the categories of the model is presented. The questions are included as a tool for practical reflection for collaborating actors in common education, training or exercise settings or in after-action reviews. Originality/value –The focus on social psychological aspects of civil-military inter-organizational collaboration, particularly in a total defense context, is new. The suggested relationship between superior themes addsknowledgetoaresearchfielddominatedbysociological andpolitical science approaches. Keywords Civil-military, Inter-organizational collaboration, Total defense, Leadership, Social psychological, Scoping review PapertypeLiterature review

Pentland, Brian T. & Hærem, Thorvald (2021)

Can Small Variations Accumulate into Big Changes?

Lounsbury, Michael; Anderson, Deborah A. & Spee, Paul (red.). On Practice and Institution: New Empirical Directions

Pentland, Brian; Ping, Liu, Kremser, Waldemar & Hærem, Thorvald (2020)

The Dynamics of Drift in Digitized Processes

MIS Quarterly, 44(1), s. 19- 47. Doi: 10.25300/MISQ/2020/14458

This paper uses a simulation to build new theory about complexity and phase change in processes that are supported by digital technologies. We know that digitized processes can drift (change incrementally over time). We simulate this phenomenon by incrementally adding and removing edges from a network that represents the process. The simulation demonstrates that incremental change can lead to a state of self-organized criticality. As the process approaches this state, further incremental change can precipitate nonlinear bursts in process complexity and significant changes in process structure. Digital technology can be designed and used to influence the likelihood and severity of these transformative phase changes. For example, the simulation predicts that systems with adaptive programming are prone to phase changes, while systems with deterministic programming are not. We use the simulation to generate a set of theoretical propositions about the effects of digitization that will be testable in empirical research.

Valaker, Sigmund; Hærem, Thorvald & Bakken, Bjørn T. (2018)

Connecting the dots in counterterrorism: The consequences of communication setting for shared situation awareness and team performance

Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 26(4), s. 425- 439. Doi: 10.1111/1468-5973.12217 - Full text in research archive

Bakken, Bjørn T.; Valaker, Sigmund & Hærem, Thorvald (2017)

Trening og øving i krisehåndtering - en metodisk tilnærming

Hafting, Tore (red.). Krisehåndtering, planlegging og handling

Worren, Nicolay; Eger, Tido & Hærem, Thorvald (2017)

Reconfigure: An organization design exercise

Simulation & Gaming, 47(6), s. 851- 865. Doi: 10.1177/1046878116667777

Kost, Dominique & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)

Transactive Memory Systems [TMS] in virtual teams: The effect of integration and differentiation on performance.

Academy of Management Proceedings Doi: 10.5465/AMBPP.2016.241

Martinsen, Øyvind L.; Furnham, Adrian & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)

An Integrated Perspective on Insight

Journal of experimental psychology. General, 145(10), s. 1319- 1332. Doi: 10.1037/xge0000208

Pentland, Brian T. & Hærem, Thorvald (2015)

Organizational Routines as Patterns of Action: Implications for Organizational Behavior

Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 2, s. 465- 487. Doi: 10.1146/annurev-orgpsych-032414-111412

Rau, Devaki; Hærem, Thorvald & Fredericks, Elisa (2015)

The Influence of Centralization and Extent of Cross-Functional Team Usage on Senior Managers’ Risk-Related Perceptions

Group & Organization Management, 40(5), s. 657- 684. Doi: 10.1177/1059601115569532

Andersen, Svein S; Hansen, Per Øystein & Hærem, Thorvald (2015)

How elite athletes reflect on their training: strong beliefs – ambiguous feedback signals

Reflective Practice, 16(3), s. 403- 417. Doi: 10.1080/14623943.2015.1052387

Elite sport organizations invest considerable efforts in continuous evaluation of training and development. A key challenge is to promote athletes’′ reliable learning. This requires critical reflection. In this paper we look at how highly successful elite cross-country skiers reflect on their training. The theoretical framework of organizational mindfulness and reliable learning directs attention to three key mechanisms that influence reflection: socialization, sensemaking and interpretation. We identified an inherent tension in the way athletes are socialized into elite athletes. On the one hand, they internalize strong beliefs in key success factors. Such beliefs serve as a normative framework that provides commitment and enthusiasm. However, strong beliefs may weaken the athletes’ ability to notice ambiguous feedback signals in complex training situations. We found four different styles of reflection, but only one of them is consistent with requirements for reliable learning.

Hærem, Thorvald; Pentland, Brian T. & Miller, Kent (2015)

Task Complexity: Extending a Core Concept

Academy of Management Review, 40(3), s. 446- 460. Doi: 10.5465/amr.2013.0350

Hærem, Thorvald (2012)

Informasjonssystemer og rutiner; sementering av prosesser eller en kilde til fleksibilitet og endring?

Magma - Tidsskrift for økonomi og ledelse, 15(8), s. 68- 76.

Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Mathisen, John Erik & Hærem, Thorvald (2012)

Heroic leadership illusions in football teams: Rationality, decision making and noise-signal ratio in the firing of football managers

Leadership, 8(2), s. 169- 185. Doi: 10.1177/1742715011420315

Kuvaas, Bård; Buch, Robert, Dysvik, Anders & Hærem, Thorvald (2012)

Economic and social leader-member exchange relationships and follower performance

Leadership Quarterly, 23(5), s. 756- 765. Doi: 10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.12.013

Pentland, Brian; Hærem, Thorvald & Hillison, Derek (2011)

The (N)Ever-Changing World: Stability and Change in Organizational Routines

Organization science, 22(6), s. 1369- 1383. Doi: 10.1287/orsc.1110.0624

This paper uses data on invoice processing in four organizations to distinguish empirically between two competing theories of organizational routines. One theory predicts that routines should generate patterns of action that are few in number and stable over time, and that atypical patterns of action are driven primarily by exceptional inputs. The competing theory predicts the opposite. By modeling the routines as networks of action and using a first-order Markov model to test for stationarity, we find support for the competing theory. The routines generated hundreds of unique patterns that changed significantly during a five-month period without any apparent external intervention. Changes did not appear to reflect improved performance or learning. Furthermore, we found that exogenous factors (such as large invoices from unusual vendors) are not associated with atypical patterns of action, but endogenous factors (such as the experience of the participants) are. We also found that increased automation can increase variation under some circumstances. These findings offer empirical support for endogenous change in organizational routines and underscore the importance of the sociomaterial context in understanding stability and change.

Bakken, Bjørn T. & Hærem, Thorvald (2011)

Intuition in crisis management: the secret weapon of successful decision makers?

Sinclair, Marta (red.). Handbook of Intuition Reserach

Hærem, Thorvald; Kuvaas, Bård, Bakken, Bjørn T. & Karlsen, Tone (2011)

Do military decision makers behave as predicted by prospect theory?

Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 24, s. 482- 497. Doi: 10.1002/bdm.704

Rau, Devaki & Hærem, Thorvald (2010)

Applying an organizational learning perspective to new technology deployment by technological gatekeepers: A theoretical model and key issues for future research

Information Systems Frontiers, 12(3), s. 287- 297. Doi: 10.1007/s10796-009-9194-8

Pentland, Brian T.; Hærem, Thorvald & Hillison, Derek W. (2010)

Comparing Organizational Routines as Recurrent Patterns of Action

Organization Studies, 31(7), s. 917- 940. Doi: 10.1177/0170840610373200

Pentland, Brian T.; Hærem, Thorvald & Hillison, Derek W. (2009)

Using workflow data to explore the structure of an organizational routine

Becker, Markus C. & Lazaric, Nathalie (red.). Organizational routines : advancing empirical research

Larsson, Gerry; Hærem, Thorvald, Sjöberg, Misa, Alvinius, Aida & Bakken, Bjørn (2007)

Indirect leadership under severe stress: a qualitative inquiry into the 2004 Kosovo riots

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 15(1), s. 23- 34.

Hærem, Thorvald & Rau, D. (2007)

The Influence Of Degree Of Expertise And Objective Task Complexity On Perceived Task Complexity And Performance

Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), s. 1320- 1331.

Martinsen, Øyvind L. & Hærem, Thorvald (2017)


Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Hærem, Thorvald (2017)

Når punktligheten taper

Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Rogndal, Johanne & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)

En banebrytende forskningslab kan løse fremtidens konflikter

Psykologisk.no [Internett]

Hærem, Thorvald & Arnulf, Jan Ketil (2013)

Ledelse, kultur og krisehåndtering

Ytring : NRK [Kronikk]

Hærem, Thorvald (2012)

Gå eller stå i jobben?

e24 (internett) [Kronikk]

Hærem, Thorvald & Bakken, Bjørn, T. (2011)

Sentral Kontrollsvikt

Dagens næringsliv [Kronikk]

Hærem, Thorvald (1)

Forbredt på det uventede

Kapital [Kronikk]

Mayiwar, Lewend & Hærem, Thorvald (2021)

Arousal and Risk Taking: the Moderating Role of Reappraisal

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management.

Researchers have provided important insight into the cognitive and emotional aspects of risk taking. In the present study we investigated the role of incidental physiological arousal - an affective component that has received relatively little attention and cognitive processing. Moreover, to gain further insight into the relation between arousal and risk taking, we examined the moderating role of habitual cognitive reappraisal. We found that incidental physiological arousal and intuitive processing predicted a higher likelihood of risk taking, whereas analytical processing predicted a lower likelihood of risk taking. Furthermore, we found that the relationship between physiological arousal and risk taking was stronger among individuals low on habitual cognitive reappraisal. Overall, the present study contributes to dual process theories of decision making as well the growing line of research on emotion regulation and risk taking. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

Andersen, Svein S; Hærem, Thorvald & Kost, Dominique (2019)

Appendix G: Cognitive and organizational challenges in a navigation team. In: Report on the collision between the Frigate HMNS Helge Ingstad and the oil tanker TS Sola outside the Sture Terminal in the Heltefjord in Hordaland county.

[Report]. Statens Havarikommisjon.

Hærem, Thorvald; Valaker, Sigmund & Lofquist, Eric (2018)

Better Late than Never? Communication Media and Adaptive Team Performance

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Meeting.

Hansson, Mathias; Hærem, Thorvald & Pentland, Brian T. (2018)

Simplify or complexify? Patterns of action as antecedents of team performance.

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Annual Conferance.

Akinci, Cinla; Bakken, Bjørn T., Bas, Alina, Bazin, Yoann, Cabantous, Laure, Gibb, Jenny, Hærem, Thorvald, Meland, Nils Tore, Sadler-Smith, Eugene, Sinclair, Marta, Sinha, Paresha & Wang, Mingyang (2017)

Intuition in Organizations: Integration of Intuition and Analysis

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Annual Meeting.

Hansson, Mathias; Pentland, Brian T. & Hærem, Thorvald (2017)

Identifying Mid-Range Patterns of Action: Tools for the Analysis of Organizational Routines

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management.

Bakken, Bjørn T.; Hansson, Mathias & Hærem, Thorvald (2016)

Interaction Effects of Intuitive and Analytic Cognitive Styles on Decision Making Performance

[Academic lecture]. DRAWKCAB KNIHT: Reflection and learning in organizations.

Kost, Dominique; Hærem, Thorvald & Pentland, Brian T. (2015)

Leveraging TMS for performance in virtual teams: TMS and coordination routines.

[Academic lecture]. Frontiers in Managerial and Organizational Cognition.

Kost, Dominique; Hærem, Thorvald, Arnulf, Jan Ketil, Andersen, Svein S & Valaker, Sigmund (2015)

Emerging Transactive Memory System Structure in Virtual Teams: A Qualitative Analysis

[Academic lecture]. Frontiers in Managerial and Organizational Cognition.

Hærem, Thorvald; Bakken, Bjørn T. & Adavikolanu, Avinash Venkata (2015)

Intuitive and analytic cognititive styles and learning in crisis management: does the training method matter?

[Academic lecture]. The 75th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Symposium tittel: Institution and learning

Hærem, Thorvald (2014)

Kunnskapsbaserte kortslutninger

[Popular scientific article]. e24 (internett)

Pentland, Brian T.; Hærem, Thorvald & Khaledi, H (2014)

Using Action Networks to Detect Change in Repetitive Patterns of Action

[Academic lecture]. ICIS.

Valaker, Sigmund; Hærem, Thorvald & Kost, Domninique (2014)

Media richness and accuracy of understanding: Moderating Role of Perceived Mutual Understanding

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Annual Meeting.

Valaker, Sigmund; Hærem, Thorvald & Bakken, Bjørn T. (2014)

Media Richness, Contextualization and Team Performance: The Moderating Role of Overconfidence

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Annual Meeting.

Hærem, Thorvald; Valaker, Sigmund & Dysvik, Anders (2014)

Kommunikasjon i organisasjonsteoretisk perspektiv

Brønn, Peggy Simcic & Arnulf, Jan Ketil (red.). Kommunikasjon for ledere og organisasjoner

Hærem, Thorvald (2013)

Læringsdørvaktene bestemmer; Problemer med IKT har skapt en helt ny type ansatt som sitter på makten

[Popular scientific article]. e24 (internett)

Arnulf, Jan Ketil; Mathisen, John Erik & Hærem, Thorvald (2010)

Is firing a football coach the wrong treatment? Rationality, decision making and noise-signal ratio

[Academic lecture]. 118th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association.

Hærem, Thorvald & Bakken, Bjørn T. (2010)

Cognitive Styles in Decision Making: Comparing Unitary and Dual-System Approaches to Predict Performance in Simulated Crisis Management Tasks

[Academic lecture]. Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Hærem, Thorvald & Rau, D. (2009)

The Role of Gatekeeper Expertise and Cognition in the Design of Routines: A conceptual Model

[Academic lecture]. 2009 Academy of Management Annual Meeting.

Hærem, Thorvald; Rau, D. & Fredericks, E.D (2008)

US and Norwegian Comparison of the Influence of Senior Manager Characteristics on New Product Development

[Academic lecture]. IAMB San Diego 2008 Conference.

Hærem, Thorvald; Bakken, Tore & Rau, Devaki (2008)

Decision Making under Time Pressure: The Influence of Cognitive Style and Expertise on Performance

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Meeting.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2003 Copenhagen Business School Ph.D.
1997 Norwegian University of Science and Technology Master Cand. Polit.
1993 University of Bergen Master of Arts
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2003 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Associate Professor
2008 - 2009 University of California, Irvine Visiting Scholar
2008 - 2009 Paul Merage School of Business Associate professor