Faculty Profile

Carlos Velasco

Assistant Professor - Department of Marketing

Biography

Carlos Velasco is an Assistant Professor at the Marketing Department, BI Norwegian Business School, where he co-founded the Centre for Multisensory Marketing. He received his D.Phil. in Experimental Psychology from Oxford University. Currently, he is also a Research Fellow at the SCHI Lab at Sussex University (UK). 

Carlos' research focuses on multisensory perception, marketing, and Human-Computer Interaction. In particular, he focuses on understanding crossmodal correspondences in multisensory branding, experiences, and Human-Food Interaction design. He has worked, and is currently working, with a number of companies in Europe, Asia, and Latin America, on topics such as multisensory experience design, food and drink, packaging, branding, and consumer research. For more information, visit his website.

Publications

Vi, Chi Thanh; Ablart, Damien, Gatti, Elia, Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

Not just seeing, but also feeling art: Mid-air haptic experiences integrated in a multisensory art exhibition

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, s. 1- 14. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.004

Spence, Charles; Obrist, Marianna, Velasco, Carlos & Ranasinghe, Nimesha (2017)

Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107, s. 62- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.003

Obrist, Marianna; Gatti, Elia, Maggioni, Emanuela, Vi, Chi Thanh & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Multisensory Experiences in HCI

IEEE Multimedia, 24(2), s. 9- 13. Doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2017.33

Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T., Wan, Xiaoang, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro, Bernal-Torres, Cesar, Cheok, Adrian David & Spence, Charles (2017)

The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts Doi: 10.1037/aca0000120 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People associate tastes and taste words (e.g., “bitter,” “sweet,” etc.) with shape features in predictable ways. In the present study, we evaluate how the curvature and boldness of typeface influences the gustatory taste (i.e., bitter, salty, sour, and sweet) associated with the typefaces of words written in 3 languages (Spanish, English, and Chinese). The study also included participants from 3 countries: Colombia, the United Kingdom, and China. Consistent with previous research, rounder typefaces were reliably associated with the word sweet, whereas more angular typefaces were associated with the other tastes in all 3 languages and countries. These results provide robust support for the notion that shape curvature is differentially matched to tastes, in a manner that is similar, across countries. Moreover, the results also indicate that all of the participants evaluated the angular typefaces in Spanish and English as more bitter, salty, and sour than the round typefaces in Spanish and English, but this angular/rounded effect was not found with Chinese typefaces. Additionally, the rounder typefaces were evaluated as sweeter than the angular typefaces in all languages and countries. Given that the Chinese round and angular characters differed only in terms of the perceived curvature (not liking, familiarity, and clarity), it is not possible to conclude that liking accounts for all the correspondences that we report. Possible mechanisms and directions for future research are discussed

Van Doorn, George; Woods, Andy T., Levitan, Carmel, Wan, Xiaoang, Velasco, Carlos, Bernal-Torres, Cesar & Spence, Charles (2017)

Does the shape of a cup influence coffee taste expectations? A cross-cultural, online study

Food Quality and Preference, 56, s. 201- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.10.013

Knöferle, Klemens; Knöferle, Pia, Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2016)

Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention

Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, 22(2), s. 196- 210. Doi: 10.1037/xap0000084

Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang, Knöferle, Klemens, Zhou, Xi, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro & Spence, Charles (2015)

Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

Frontiers in Psychology, 6(301) Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00301

Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos & Knöferle, Klemens (2014)

A large sample study on the influence of the multisensory environment on the wine drinking experience

Flavour, 3(8) Doi: 10.1186/2044-7248-3-8

Velasco, Carlos; Adams, Carmen, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2019)

On the localization of tastes and tasty products in 2D space

Food Quality and Preference

People map different sensory stimuli, and words that describe/refer to those stimuli, onto spatial dimensions in a manner that is non-arbitrary. Here, we evaluate whether people also associate basic taste words and products with characteristic tastes with a distinctive location (e.g., upper right corner) or a more general direction (e.g., more right than left). Based on prior research on taste and location valence, we predicted that sweetness would be associated with higher vertical spatial positions than the other basic tastes. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 support the view that participants do indeed locate the word “sweet” higher in space than the word “bitter”. In Experiment 2, the participants also positioned products that are typically expected to be sweet (cupcake and honey) or bitter (beer and coffee) spatially. Overall, the sweet-tasting products were assigned to higher locations than were the bitter-tasting products. In order to test whether taste/location congruency would also affect product evaluations, a third experiment was conducted. The results of Experiment 3A (between participants) and 3B (within participants) failed to provide any evidence for the existence of consistent taste/location congruency effects. However, in Experiment 3B, the participants evaluated the sweet products as looking more appetizing when presented in upper relative to lower shelf locations. In none of the three studies was an association found between tastes and positions along the horizontal axis. Taken together, these results suggest that sweet and bitter tastes are differentially located in vertical, but not horizontal, space. The potential implications of these findings for both our understanding of the crossmodal correspondences, as well as for taste evaluation, and product placement are discussed.

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2018)

Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behaviour

Marketing letters

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2018)

Digital sensory marketing: Integrating new technologies into multisensory online experience

Journal of Interactive Marketing

Velasco, Carlos; Beh, Eric J., Le, Tiffany & Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando (2018)

The shapes associated with the concept of ‘sweet and sour’ foods

Food Quality and Preference, 68(September), s. 250- 257. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.03.012

Research on taste-shape correspondences has focused on one-to-one taste/shape matching tasks. However, foods and drinks tend to involve multiple shapes (or shape attributes) and tastes that co-occur at different moments of our eating experiences. In the present research, we assessed whether food concepts involving more than one taste (e.g., “sweet and sour”) would be associated with pairs of round and/or angular shapes. The participants matched pairs comprising angular and round shapes with “sweet and sour” food concepts more often than with other single taste and taste combination concepts, in a manner that is broadly consistent with studies involving one-to-one taste/shape matches. These results were observed both when the participants were presented with the shape pairs alone (Experiment 1) or along with a product’s packaging (Experiment 2). We conclude by presenting possible explanations for the results obtained, as well as directions for future research

Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2018)

On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the ‘food and beverage’ and ‘home and personal care’ categories

Food Quality and Preference, 68, s. 226- 237. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2018.03.008

Colour is perhaps the single most important element as far as the design of multisensory product packaging is concerned. It plays a key role in capturing the attention of the shopper in-store. A distinctive colour, or colour scheme, can also act as a valuable brand attribute (think here only of the signature colour schemes of Cadbury’s Dairy Milk chocolate). In many categories, though, colour is used to convey information to the consumer about a product’s sensory properties (e.g., taste or flavour, say), or else to prime other more abstract brand attributes (such as, for example, premium, natural, or healthy). However, packaging colour can also affect the customer’s product experience as well: Indeed, a growing body of empirical research now shows that packaging colour affects everything from the expected and perceived taste and flavour of food and beverage products through to the fragrance of home and personal care items. Packaging colour, then, plays a dominant role at several stages of the consumer’s product experience.

Velasco, Carlos; Obrist, Marianna, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2018)

Multisensory technology for flavor augmentation: A mini review

Frontiers in Psychology, 9(26) Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00026 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

There is growing interest in the development of new technologies that capitalize on our emerging understanding of the multisensory influences on flavor perception in order to enhance human–food interaction design. This review focuses on the role of (extrinsic) visual, auditory, and haptic/tactile elements in modulating flavor perception and more generally, our food and drink experiences. We review some of the most exciting examples of recent multisensory technologies for augmenting such experiences. Here, we discuss applications for these technologies, for example, in the field of food experience design, in the support of healthy eating, and in the rapidly growing world of sensory marketing. However, as the review makes clear, while there are many opportunities for novel human–food interaction design, there are also a number of challenges that will need to be tackled before new technologies can be meaningfully integrated into our everyday food and drink experiences.

Velasco, Carlos; Hyndman, Sarah & Spence, Charles (2018)

The role of typeface curvilinearity on taste expectations and perception

International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 11, s. 63- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijgfs.2017.11.007

People associate specific shape properties with basic taste attributes (such as sweet, bitter, and sour). It has been suggested that more preferred visual aesthetic features are matched to sweetness whereas less-preferred features are matched with tastes such as bitter and sour instead. Given the range of visual aesthetic features that have been shown to be associated with typeface designs, it would seem reasonable to suggest that typefaces might therefore be associated with specific taste properties as well. Should that be the case, one might then wonder whether viewing text presented in, say, a rounder typeface would also potentially influence the perception of sweetness, as compared to viewing the same information when presented in a more angular typeface. Here, we summarize the latest findings supporting the existence of a crossmodal correspondence between typeface features, in particular curvilinearity, and basic tastes. Moreover, we present initial evidence that suggests that, under certain circumstances, typeface curvilinearity can influence taste ratings. Given such evidence, it can be argued that typeface may well be an important, if often neglected, aspect of our everyday lives which can be potentially useful in the design of food and drink product and brand experiences.

Turoman, Nora; Velasco, Carlos, Chen, Yi-Chuan, Huang, Pi-Chun & Spence, Charles (2018)

Symmetry and its role in the crossmodal correspondence between shape and taste

Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 80(3), s. 738- 751. Doi: 10.3758/s13414-017-1463-x

Despite the rapid growth of research on the crossmodal correspondence between visually presented shapes and basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty), most studies that have been published to date have focused on shape contour (roundness/angularity). Meanwhile, other important features, such as symmetry, as well as the underlying mechanisms of the shape–taste correspondence, have rarely been studied. Over two experiments, we systematically manipulated the symmetry and contours of shapes and measured the influences of these variables on shape–taste correspondences. Furthermore, we investigated a potential underlying mechanism, based on the common affective appraisal of stimuli in different sensory modalities. We replicated the results of previous studies showing that round shapes are associated with sweet taste, whereas angular shapes are associated with sour and bitter tastes. In addition, we demonstrated a novel effect that the symmetry group of a shape influences how it is associated with taste. A significant relationship was observed between the taste and appraisal scores of the shapes, suggesting that the affective factors of pleasantness and threat underlie the shape–taste correspondence. These results were consistent across cultures, when we compared participants from Taiwanese and Western (UK, US, Canada) cultures. Our findings highlight that perceived pleasantness and threat are culturally common factors involved in at least some crossmodal correspondences.

Reinoso Carvalho, Felipe; Touhafi, Abdellah, Steenhaut, Kris, van Ee, Raymond & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Using sound to enhance taste experiences: An overview

Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 10525 LNCS, s. 316- 330. Doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-67738-5_19

Ablart, Damien; Velasco, Carlos, Vi, Chi Thanh, Gatti, Elia & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

The how and why behind a multisensory art display

interactions, 24(6), s. 38- 43. Doi: 10.1145/3137091

Vi, Chi Thanh; Ablart, Damien, Gatti, Elia, Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

Not just seeing, but also feeling art: Mid-air haptic experiences integrated in a multisensory art exhibition

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, s. 1- 14. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.004

Spence, Charles; Obrist, Marianna, Velasco, Carlos & Ranasinghe, Nimesha (2017)

Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107, s. 62- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.003

Abhishek, Pathak; Gemma, Calvert & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Evaluating the impact of early- and late-acquired phonemes on the luxury appeal of brand names

Journal of Brand Management, 24(6), s. 522- 545. Doi: 10.1057/s41262-017-0048-2

Obrist, Marianna; Gatti, Elia, Maggioni, Emanuela, Vi, Chi Thanh & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Multisensory Experiences in HCI

IEEE Multimedia, 24(2), s. 9- 13. Doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2017.33

Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T., Wan, Xiaoang, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro, Bernal-Torres, Cesar, Cheok, Adrian David & Spence, Charles (2017)

The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts Doi: 10.1037/aca0000120 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People associate tastes and taste words (e.g., “bitter,” “sweet,” etc.) with shape features in predictable ways. In the present study, we evaluate how the curvature and boldness of typeface influences the gustatory taste (i.e., bitter, salty, sour, and sweet) associated with the typefaces of words written in 3 languages (Spanish, English, and Chinese). The study also included participants from 3 countries: Colombia, the United Kingdom, and China. Consistent with previous research, rounder typefaces were reliably associated with the word sweet, whereas more angular typefaces were associated with the other tastes in all 3 languages and countries. These results provide robust support for the notion that shape curvature is differentially matched to tastes, in a manner that is similar, across countries. Moreover, the results also indicate that all of the participants evaluated the angular typefaces in Spanish and English as more bitter, salty, and sour than the round typefaces in Spanish and English, but this angular/rounded effect was not found with Chinese typefaces. Additionally, the rounder typefaces were evaluated as sweeter than the angular typefaces in all languages and countries. Given that the Chinese round and angular characters differed only in terms of the perceived curvature (not liking, familiarity, and clarity), it is not possible to conclude that liking accounts for all the correspondences that we report. Possible mechanisms and directions for future research are discussed

Petit, Olivia; Spence, Charles, Velasco, Carlos, Woods, Andy T. & Cheok, Adrian David (2017)

Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behavior via imagined consumption

Journal of Business Research, 75, s. 240- 248. Doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2016.07.021

Van Doorn, George; Woods, Andy T., Levitan, Carmel, Wan, Xiaoang, Velasco, Carlos, Bernal-Torres, Cesar & Spence, Charles (2017)

Does the shape of a cup influence coffee taste expectations? A cross-cultural, online study

Food Quality and Preference, 56, s. 201- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.10.013

Vi, Chi Thanh; Ablart, Damien, Gatti, Elia, Velasco, Carlos & Obrist, Marianna (2017)

Not just seeing, but also feeling art: Mid-air haptic experiences integrated in a multisensory art exhibition

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, s. 1- 14. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.004

Spence, Charles; Obrist, Marianna, Velasco, Carlos & Ranasinghe, Nimesha (2017)

Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls

International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107, s. 62- 74. Doi: 10.1016/j.ijhcs.2017.06.003

Obrist, Marianna; Gatti, Elia, Maggioni, Emanuela, Vi, Chi Thanh & Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Multisensory Experiences in HCI

IEEE Multimedia, 24(2), s. 9- 13. Doi: 10.1109/MMUL.2017.33

Velasco, Carlos; Woods, Andy T., Wan, Xiaoang, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro, Bernal-Torres, Cesar, Cheok, Adrian David & Spence, Charles (2017)

The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages

Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts Doi: 10.1037/aca0000120 - Fulltekst i vitenarkiv

People associate tastes and taste words (e.g., “bitter,” “sweet,” etc.) with shape features in predictable ways. In the present study, we evaluate how the curvature and boldness of typeface influences the gustatory taste (i.e., bitter, salty, sour, and sweet) associated with the typefaces of words written in 3 languages (Spanish, English, and Chinese). The study also included participants from 3 countries: Colombia, the United Kingdom, and China. Consistent with previous research, rounder typefaces were reliably associated with the word sweet, whereas more angular typefaces were associated with the other tastes in all 3 languages and countries. These results provide robust support for the notion that shape curvature is differentially matched to tastes, in a manner that is similar, across countries. Moreover, the results also indicate that all of the participants evaluated the angular typefaces in Spanish and English as more bitter, salty, and sour than the round typefaces in Spanish and English, but this angular/rounded effect was not found with Chinese typefaces. Additionally, the rounder typefaces were evaluated as sweeter than the angular typefaces in all languages and countries. Given that the Chinese round and angular characters differed only in terms of the perceived curvature (not liking, familiarity, and clarity), it is not possible to conclude that liking accounts for all the correspondences that we report. Possible mechanisms and directions for future research are discussed

Van Doorn, George; Woods, Andy T., Levitan, Carmel, Wan, Xiaoang, Velasco, Carlos, Bernal-Torres, Cesar & Spence, Charles (2017)

Does the shape of a cup influence coffee taste expectations? A cross-cultural, online study

Food Quality and Preference, 56, s. 201- 211. Doi: 10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.10.013

Knöferle, Klemens; Knöferle, Pia, Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2016)

Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers' visual attention

Journal of experimental psychology. Applied, 22(2), s. 196- 210. Doi: 10.1037/xap0000084

Velasco, Carlos; Wan, Xiaoang, Knöferle, Klemens, Zhou, Xi, Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro & Spence, Charles (2015)

Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength

Frontiers in Psychology, 6(301) Doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00301

Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos & Knöferle, Klemens (2014)

A large sample study on the influence of the multisensory environment on the wine drinking experience

Flavour, 3(8) Doi: 10.1186/2044-7248-3-8

Velasco, Carlos; Karunanayaka, Kasun & Nijholt, Anton (1)

Editorial: Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

Frontiers in Psychology [Kronikk]

Petit, Olivia; Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory consumer-packaging interaction (CPI): The role of new technologies

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Spence, Charles; Velasco, Carlos & Petit, Olivia (2019)

The consumer neuroscience of multisensory packaging design

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory premium packaging

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

The multisensory analysis of product packaging framework

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

The role of typeface in packaging design

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Spence, Charles & Velasco, Carlos (2019)

Packaging colour and its multiple roles

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory product packaging: An introduction

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (red.). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

Velasco, Carlos & Spence, Charles (2019)

Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences

[Scientific book]. Springer Nature.

Obrist, Marianna; Tu, Yunwen, Yao, Lining & Velasco, Carlos (2018)

Not just functional, nutritious, but also experiential: Designing eating experiences for space travel

[Academic lecture]. 69th International Astronautical Congress.

Velasco, Carlos; Tu, Yunwen & Obrist, Marianna (2018)

Towards multisensory storytelling with taste and flavor

[Academic lecture]. ICMI.

Velasco, Carlos (2018)

Seasoning food with sound

[Popular scientific article]. The Pembrokian, s. 18- 20.

Velasco, Carlos; Nijholt, Anton & Karunanayaka, Kasun (2018)

Multisensory Human-Food Interaction

[Scientific book]. Frontiers Media.

Obrist, Marianna; Marti, Patrizia, Velasco, Carlos, Tu, Yunwen, Narumi, Takuji & Møller, Naja L. Holten (2018)

The future of computing and food

[Academic lecture]. 2018 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces.

Velasco, Carlos; Adams, Carmen, Petit, Olivia & Spence, Charles (2018)

Localizing taste and products with characteristic tastes in 2D space

[Academic lecture]. SenseAsia 2018.

Velasco, Carlos; Nijholt, Anton, Obrist, Marianna, Okajima, Katsunori, Schifferstein, Rick & Spence, Charles (2017)

2nd international workshop on multisensorial approaches to human-food interaction

[Academic lecture]. ICMI.

Salgado-Montejo, Alejandro; Velasco, Carlos, Ariza, Luis Eduardo, Salgado, Rodrigo & Moreno, Ana Maria (2017)

The four moments of experience: Streamlining the process of packaging development

[Article in business/trade/industry journal]. ESOMAR Publication Series Volume S378 LA 2017

Velasco, Carlos (2017)

Designing multisensory eating and drinking experiences

[Popular scientific article]. insight+

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2015 Oxford University - Pembroke D.Phil. in Experimental Psychology
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2016 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Assistant Professor
2015 - 2017 University of Oxford Research Affiliate
2015 - 2016 Imagineering Institute Research Fellow
2015 - 2015 University of Sussex Research Fellow