Faculty Profile

Erlend Nybakk

Researcher 2 - Department of Strategy and Entrepreneurship


Hansen, Eric; Nybakk, Erlend & Guerrero, Jose (2019)

Service Innovation in Forestry: The Perspective of Family Forest Owners

Hujala, Teppo; Toppinen, Anne & Butler, Brett J. (red.). Services in Family Forestry

Hansen, Eric & Nybakk, Erlend (2018)

Response to the global financial crisis: a follow-up study

Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 7:7, s. 1- 12. Doi: 10.1186/s13731-018-0087-2

Hansen, Eric; Hoen, Hans Fredrik & Nybakk, Erlend (2018)

Competitive Advantage for the Forest-based Sector in the Future Bioeconomy – Research Question Priority

BioProducts Business, 3(2) Doi: 10.22382/bpb-2018-002

Quiroga, Sonia; Suarez, Cristina, Ficko, Andrej, Feliciano, Diana, Bouriaud, Laura, Brahic, Elodie, Deuffic, Philippe, Dobsinska, Zuzana, Jarsky, Vilem, Lawrence, Anna & Nybakk, Erlend (2018)

What influences European private forest owners? affinity for subsidies?

Forest Policy and Economics Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2018.08.008

Høibø, Olav Albert; Hansen, Eric, Nybakk, Erlend & Nygaard, Marius (2018)

Preferences for urban building materials: Does building culture background matter?

Forests, 9(8) Doi: 10.3390/f9080504 - Full text in research archive

Kajanus, Miika; Leban, Vasja, Glavonjic, Predrag, Krč, Janez, Nedeljkovic, Jelena, Nonic, Dragan, Nybakk, Erlend, Posavec, Stjepan, Riedl, Marcel, Teder, Meelis, Wilhelmsson, Erik, Zalite, Zinta & Eskelinen, Tuomo (2018)

What can we learn from business models in the European forest sector: Exploring the key elements of new business model designs

Forest Policy and Economics Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2018.04.005

Weiss, Gerhard; Lawrence, Anna, Hujala, Teppo, Lidestav, Gunn, Nichiforel, Liviu, Nybakk, Erlend, Quiroga, Sonia, Sarvašová, Zuzana, Suarez, Cristina & Zivojinovic, Ivana (2018)

Forest ownership changes in Europe: State of knowledge and conceptual foundations

Forest Policy and Economics Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2018.03.003

Feliciano, Diana; Laura, Bouriaud, Brahic, Elodie, Philippe, Deuffic, Dobsinska, Zuzana, Jarsky, Vilem, Anna, Lawrence, Nybakk, Erlend, Quiroga, Sonia, Cristina, Suarez & Andrej, Ficko (2017)

Understanding private forest owners’ conceptualisation of forest management: Evidence from a survey in seven European countries

Journal of Rural Studies, 54, s. 162- 176. Doi: 10.1016/j.jrurstud.2017.06.016

Hansen, Eric; Rasmussen, Casper Claudi & Nybakk, Erlend (2017)

Recessionary period activities in forest sector firms: Impacts on innovativeness

Journal of Forest Economics, 28, s. 80- 86. Doi: 10.1016/j.jfe.2017.06.004

Sikora, Adam Tomasz; Zajac, Stanislaw & Nybakk, Erlend (2017)

Assessment of forestry contractors activities in the forests of the Beskidy Mts [Ocena dzialalnosci firm lesnych w lasach beskidzkich]

Sylwan, 161(6), s. 443- 450.

Panwar, Rajat; Nybakk, Erlend, Hansen, Eric N. & Pinkse, Jonatan (2017)

Does the Business Case Matter? The Effect of a Perceived Business Case on Small Firms’ Social Engagement

Journal of Business Ethics, 144(3), s. 597- 608. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-015-2835-6

Panwar, Rajat; Nybakk, Erlend, Hansen, Eric & Pinkse, Jonatan (2016)

The effect of small firms' competitive strategies on their community and environmental engagement

Journal of Cleaner Production, 129, s. 578- 585. Doi: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.141

Rasmussen, Casper Claudi & Nybakk, Erlend (2016)

Growth drivers in low technology micro firms

International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 20(3-4), s. 258- 277. Doi: 10.1504/IJEIM.2016.077964

Nybakk, Erlend; Olsen, Per Ingvar & Pettersen, Ivar (2016)

Norsk matindustri: veier til framtidig forbedring av produktivitet og konkurranseevne

Hegrenes, Agnar; Mittenzwei, Klaus & Prestegard, Sjur Spildo (red.). Norsk jordbrukspolitikk: handlingsrom i endring

Sikora, Adam Tomasz; Nybakk, Erlend & Panwar, Rajat (2016)

The effect of entrepreneurial and learning orientations on financial performance in a transition economy: evidence from forest contracting firms in southern Poland

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 31(1), s. 119- 125. Doi: 10.1080/02827581.2015.1079642

Høibø, Olav Albert; Hansen, Eric & Nybakk, Erlend (2015)

Building material preferences with a focus on wood in urban housing: Durability and environmental impacts

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 45(11), s. 1617- 1627. Doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2015-0123

As societies urbanize, a growing proportion of the global population and an increasing number of housing units will be needed in urban areas. High-rise buildings and environmentally friendly, renewable materials must play important roles in sustainable urban development. To achieve this, it is imperative that policy makers, planners, architects, and construction companies understand consumer preferences. We use data from urban dwellers in the Oslo region of Norway to develop an understanding of material preferences in relation to environmental attitudes and knowledge about wood. We emphasise wood compared with other building materials in various applications (structural, exterior, and interior) within urban apartment blocks. We use 503 responses from a web panel. Our findings show that Oslo area consumers tend to prefer materials other than wood in various applications in apartment blocks, especially structural applications. Still, some respondent prefer wood, including some applications in apartment blocks where wood is currently not commonly used. The best target for wood-based urban housing includes younger people who have strong environmental values. As environmental attitudes evolve in society and a greater proportion of consumers search out environmentally friendly product alternatives, the opportunities for wood to gain market share will most likely increase.

Hansen, Eric; Nybakk, Erlend & Panwar, Rajat (2015)

Pure versus hybrid competitive strategies in the forest sector. Performance implications

Forest Policy and Economics, 54, s. 51- 57. Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2015.02.001

Panwar, Rajat; Nybakk, Erlend, Pinkse, Jonatan & Eric, Hansen (2015)

Being Good When Not Doing Well: Examining the Effect of the Economic Downturn on Small Manufacturing Firms’ Ongoing Sustainability-Oriented Initiatives

Organization & Environment, 28(2), s. 204- 222. Doi: 10.1177/1086026615573842

Nybakk, Erlend & Rajat, Panwar (2015)

Understanding instrumental motivations for social responsibility engagement in a micro-firm context

Business Ethics. A European Review, 24(1), s. 18- 33. Doi: 10.1111/beer.12064

Nybakk, Erlend; Hansen, Eric, Treu, Andreas & Aase, Tore (2015)

Chemical suppliers' perspectives and impact on innovation in the wood treating industry

Wood and Fiber Science, 47(1), s. 31- 43.

Hansen, Eric; Nybakk, Erlend & Panwar, Rajat (2014)

Innovation insights from North American forest sector research: A literature review

Forests, 5(6), s. 1341- 1355. Doi: 10.3390/f5061341

Hansen, Eric N.; Nybakk, Erlend & Panwar, Rajat (2013)

Firm Performance, Business Environment, and Outlook for Social and Environmental Responsibility during the Economic Downturn: Findings and Implications from the Forest Sector

Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 43(12), s. 1137- 1144. Doi: 10.1139/cjfr-2013-0215

The recent economic downturn severely affected the US forest sector from a macro-economic perspective but little is known about changes in firm-level performance. In this study we investigate the changes in financial, social and environmental performance of forest sector firms during a period approximately corresponding to the downturn. We also assess industry dynamism and industry’s view about social and environmental responsibility as a competitive tool. We conducted a national survey of wood, furniture and paper companies. Approximately sixty percent of our respondents reported a decline in financial performance during the downturn. With respect to social and environmental performance, customer oriented actions show mixed trends, employee matters remained somewhat unaltered, community engagement significantly decreased, and engagement in environmental activities significantly increased. Respondents view their operating business environment as highly dynamic and difficult and they do not view engagement in social and environmental responsibility activities leading to either financial or non-financial benefits.

Panwar, Rajat; Paul, Karen, Nybakk, Erlend, Hansen, Eric N. & Thompson, Derek (2013)

The Legitimacy of CSR Actions of Publicly Traded Companies Versus Family-Owned Companies

Journal of Business Ethics Doi: 10.1007/s10551-013-1933-6

Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is one of the ways through which companies gain legitimacy. However, CSR actions themselves are subject to public skepticism because of increased public awareness of greenwashing and scandalous corporate behavior. Legitimacy of CSR actions is indeed influenced by the actions of the company but also is rooted in the basic cultural values of a society and in the ideologies of evaluators. This study examines the legitimacy of CSR actions of publicly traded forest products companies as compared to family-owned forest products companies. Results indicate a lower legitimacy for CSR actions of publicly traded companies than for family-owned companies. The study also examines the effect of social responsibility orientation (SRO) of evaluators on the legitimacy accorded to companies’ CSR actions. We found that SRO was negatively associated with legitimacy, especially for women. Perceived profitability of companies was negatively associated with legitimacy of CSR actions for publicly traded but not for family-owned companies.

Jenssen, Jan Inge & Nybakk, Erlend (2013)

Inter-organizational networks and innovation in small, knowledge-intensive firms: A literature review

International Journal of Innovation Management, 17(02) Doi: 10.1142/S1363919613500084

A growing body of research acknowledges that inter-organizational networks greatly influence a firm's innovation performance. This study extends our understanding of this relationship by considering the effect of inter-organizational networks on innovation in small, knowledge-intensive companies. Based on a literature review, we formulate four propositions regarding the moderating effects of firm size and knowledge intensity on the relationship between inter-organizational networks and innovation, as well as the influence of these factors on the development of the inter-organizational networks themselves.

Tangeland, Torvald; Vennesland, Birger & Nybakk, Erlend (2013)

Second-home owners' intention to purchase nature-based tourism activity products - A Norwegian case study

Tourism Management, 36, s. 364- 376. Doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.006

Tourism is acknowledged to be an important business sector in rural areas. This paper argues that second-home owners constitute an important market segment for businesses that offer nature-based tourism activities. Previous research has shown that a number of factors influence tourist behaviour. This study examined how motivation and demographic variables affect second-home owners’ intention to purchase three different types of activity products: learning, adventure, and hunting products.We found substantial variations in the purchase intentions for these products among second-home owners. These intentions were influenced by push and pull motivations, age, income and educational level. Secondhome owners with a high intention of purchasing nature-based tourism activity products tend to be young, high-income, and socially oriented risk takers. Businesses offering nature-based tourism activity products should use a combination of demographic and psychographic variables when they segment the second-home market.

White, William; Lunnan, Anders, Nybakk, Erlend & Kulisic, Biljana (2013)

The role of governments in renewable energy: The importance of policy consistency

Biomass & Bioenergy, 57, s. 97- 105. Doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.12.035

The renewable energy sector (RES) often receives financial, institutional or educational support from the government. A significant challenge for the actors in the RES field is policy consistency. When investments are carried out, a prognosis for future policies must be made. If the future is uncertain, larger risk margins should be included in the investment appraisals. Sudden, unexpected policy changes are one type of uncertainty that makes it more difficult to attract capital. In this article, we discuss the consequences of discontinuities in policy support using a case study approach. In Ontario, feed-in tariffs were introduced in 2009 and resulted in a large uptake in the programme. In 2010, the subsidies were drastically cut, resulting in the RES community losing confidence that the government would offer consistent support to the sector. In Norway, a large new biodiesel plant was opened by the Minister of the Environment only a few weeks before the government announced a major change in the bioenergy policy. As a result, the new plant was closed and restructured, and the investors lost nearly all of their investments. The government lost political credibility, making it difficult to raise private capital for new investments in this sector in Norway. We do not argue that policies should not be changed, but the manner in which policies are changed plays an important role. Our study shows that large, unexpected changes in policies increase uncertainty and may have a negative impact on investments. This topic should be further researched.

Nybakk, Erlend; Lunnan, Anders, Jenssen, Jan Inge & Crespell, Pablo (2013)

The importance of social networks in the Norwegian firewood industry

Biomass & Bioenergy, 57, s. 48- 56. Doi: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.11.018

This study examines the relationship between social network size, innovation and firm performance among firewood producers in Norway. Moreover, it investigates how this relationship is affected both by the structure and variations in networks and by firm size and age. A questionnaire-based survey was sent to managers of firms (including one-person firms) in the firewood industry in Norway. A total of 645 usable replies were received, and the theoretical model was tested using structural equation modelling. The findings show that social network size has a positive effect on firm performance via innovation by firewood producers. Furthermore, the results show that firewood producers with fewer involved family members and more variation in occupation and entrepreneurial experience in their networks benefit more from larger social networks than other producers do.

Nybakk, Erlend (2012)

Learning orientation, innovativeness and financial performance in traditional manufacturing firms: a higher-order structural equation model

International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(5) Doi: 10.1142/S1363919612003873

This study examines the relationships among learning orientation, firm innovativeness and financial performance in the context of the Norwegian wood industry. A questionnaire-based survey was sent to the CEOs of firms in the wood industry in Norway (241 usable replies, response rate of 49 percent). Learning orientation and firm innovativeness were conceptualised and analysed as latent second-order constructs by using structural equation modelling. The findings show that learning orientation has a positive effect on firm innovativeness in the traditional manufacturing industry. In addition, learning orientation was found to positively affect financial performance via the full mediating effect of firm innovativeness. Furthermore, firm innovativeness was also found to have an independent positive effect on financial performance. No direct effect of learning orientation on financial performance was found. According to the data, firm age also does not appear to affect the relationship between learning orientation and firm innovativeness.

Sikora, Adam Tomasz & Nybakk, Erlend (2012)

Rural development and forest owner innovativeness in a country in transition: Qualitative and quantitative insights from tourism in Poland

Forest Policy and Economics, 15, s. 3- 11. Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2011.09.003

Poland's share of private forests is relatively small compared with that of other European countries. Private Polish forests are in poor condition and have been under great economic stress. This situation has changed somewhat with respect to rural development since Poland's accession to the European Union. However, many antecedents to the innovativeness of forest owners remain unaddressed by scholars. The objective of this paper is to study the effect of forest owners' attitudes towards risk, social responsibility, learning orientation and institutional support on their innovativeness. Additionally, we aim to analyse the forest owners' attitudes towards start-ups based on nature-based tourism, which is a relatively new activity in Poland. We used both quantitative and qualitative approaches in this study and collected data via face-to-face interviews with 105 forest owners. The results showed that, although a forest owner's attitudes towards risk, social responsibility and learning orientation positively impacted the owner's innovativeness, institutional support did not. In the qualitative portion of this study, we examine nature-based tourism as a relatively new phenomenon and the factors affecting an owner's decision to initiate this type of business. The results imply that private forest owners in Poland require greater institutional support to start tourism businesses related to their forest land. However, the present support policies do not seem to have a direct positive effect on the forest owners' innovativeness. Nevertheless, policies that limit risk, promote learning and encourage social responsibility among Polish forest owners can stimulate them to become more innovative. Previous research has shown that this change, in turn, results in better economic performance and enhanced rural vitality.

Nybakk, Erlend & Jenssen, Jan Inge (2012)

Innovation strategy, working climate, and financial performance in traditional manufacturing firms: An empirical analysis

International Journal of Innovation Management, 16(2) Doi: 10.1142/S1363919611003374

In this study, we address this research question: What effect do an innovation strategy and an innovative working climate have on financial performance in the Norwegian wood industry? Innovation strategy embodies four dimensions: those concerning the degree to which innovation in the form of products, processes, and business systems are embedded in the management values and priorities, and those concerning the degree of expenditure in R&D. An innovative working climate is embodied by team cohesion, supervisory encouragement, resources, autonomy, challenge, and openness to innovation. Previous studies indicate a lack of studies in traditional manufacturing and a lack of studies including both an innovation strategy and a supporting working climate. 241 CEOs answered our survey . The connectional model was tested with structural equation modelling, and all hypotheses received support. This implies that an innovation strategy and an innovative working climate enhance financial performance in traditional manufacturing firms. The results are discussed and implications are made

Nybakk, Erlend; Crespell, Pablo & Hansen, Eric N. (2011)

Climate for Innovation and Innovation Strategy as Drivers for Success in the Wood Industry: Moderation Effects of Firm Size, Industry Sector, and Country of Operation

Silva Fennica, 45(3), s. 415- 430. Doi: 10.14214/sf.110

This study examines the relationships between firm financial performance and a) the climate for innovation and b) innovation strategy in the wood products industry. The focus is on the moderator effects of firm size, country of operation, and industry sector. Using a sample of 460 responses from chief executive officers and top managers of Norwegian and US firms, we conducted a regression analysis to probe for interaction effects. The sample included primary and secondary manufacturers of various sizes. Consistent with previous studies, we found a positive impact for both a climate for innovation and an innovation strategy on firm performance. In terms of moderation, only one interaction was found to be significant, representing a moderator effect of industry × size on the climate-performance relationship. Further testing showed that secondary, large manufacturers exhibited a weaker, yet still positive, relationship between climate for innovation and performance. This low level of significant interactions suggests stability of the relationship among the main factors depicted in the model, with important implications for managers and future research. These findings indicate that a positive climate for innovation and a management committed to innovation through an innovation strategy have a positive effect on the bottom line of wood products firms. This effect holds true regardless of industry, size, or country, so most firms can benefit from the implementation of these pro-innovation practices.

Mendes, Américo M.S. Carvalho; Štefanek, Blaž, Feliciano, Diana, Mizareite, Diana, Nonic, Dragan, Kitchoukov, Emil, Nybakk, Erlend, Duduman, Gabriel, Weiss, Gerhard, Nichiforel, Liviu, Stoyanova, Maria, Mäkinen, Pekka, Alves, Rosário, Milijic, Vojislav & Sarvašová, Zuzana (2011)

Institutional innovation in European private forestry: the emergence of forest owners' organizations

Weiss, Gerhard; Pettenella, Davide, Ollonqvist, Pekka & Slee, Bill (red.). Innovation in forestry - territorial and value chain relationships

Nybakk, Erlend; Niskanen, Anssi, Bajric, Fahrudin, Duduman, Gabriel, Feliciano, Diana, Jablonski, Krzysztof, Lunnan, Anders, Sadauskiene, Liana, Slee, Bill & Teder, Meelis (2011)

Innovation in the wood bio-energy sector in Europe

Weiss, Gerhard; Pettenella, Davide, Ollonqvist, Pekka & Slee, Bill (red.). Innovation in forestry - territorial and value chain relationships

Hansen, Eric N.; Nybakk, Erlend, Bull, Lyndall, Crespell, Pablo, Jélvez, Arnaldo & Knowles, Chris (2011)

A multinational investigation of softwood sawmilling innovativeness

Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 26(3), s. 278- 287. Doi: 10.1080/02827581.2011.553198

Softwood sawmilling is important to the economy of many nations and huge volumes of softwood lumber are produced annually. Accordingly, the economic success of softwood sawmills, as they compete with substitutes such as steel and concrete, is of interest to various industry stakeholders, especially managers, and researchers. Given the strong connection between innovativeness and firm performance in the literature, this study investigates innovativeness in sawmills in Australia, Canada, Chile, Norway, and the USA. Mail surveys were used in each of the countries to collect data regarding product, process, and business systems innovativeness and firm performance. Findings suggest that sawmills focus equally on product and process innovativeness, firm size positively impacts innovativeness, and that overall, process innovativeness is what drives firm performance in this sector. Findings suggest that managers should focus on being innovative since this positively impacts firm performance.

Nybakk, Erlend; Crespell, Pablo, Hansen, Eric & Lunnan, Anders (2009)

Antecedents to forest owner innovativeness: An investigation of the non-timber forest products and services sector

Forest Ecology and Management, 257(2), s. 608- 618. Doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2008.09.040

Increased urbanization in many societies is having a negative impact on vitality of rural areas. To maintain the vitality of these areas governments have employed a variety of policies, some of which are designed to facilitate innovation and enhance landowner innovativeness. However, little research has investigated the antecedents to landowner innovativeness and whether innovativeness positively impacts economic performance in this setting. The present study investigates these issues in the context of Norwegian forestland owners and their involvement in non-timber forest products and services (a form of ecosystem services). The authors present a conceptual model hypothesizing that social networking, entrepreneurial climate, and a learning orientation each have a direct, positive impact on landowner innovativeness and innovativeness has a direct, positive impact on economic performance. Property size is included as a moderating variable. Data were collected via a mail survey and a total of 683 useable responses were received reaching an adjusted response rate of 35%. Results show that social networking and a learning orientation positively impact innovativeness, but that entrepreneurial climate does not. Innovativeness was found to positively impact economic performance. The authors outline implications of the findings that may be used by policy makers, landowners and research. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Jenssen, Jan Inge & Nybakk, Erlend (2009)

Inter-organizational innovation promoters in small knowledge intensive firms

International Journal of Innovation Management, 13(3), s. 441- 466.

This paper examines the relationship between external relations and innovation in small, knowledge-intensive Norwegian firms. Our findings indicate that external relations are beneficial for innovation. The analysis shows that it is necessary to treat innovation as more than a concept. Our independent variables related differently to product innovation, process innovation, and market innovation. We found that market participation in product development has a positive impact on product, process and market innovation. We also found that top management interaction with other firms had a positive effect on market innovation and that top management interaction with external R&D had a positive effect on product innovation. This finding probably indicates that access to R&D resources is vital for product development in the context of knowledge-intensive products. The results also show that participation in conferences and courses positively influences process and market innovation and that systematic environmental scanning positively influences product innovation.

Nybakk, Erlend & Hansen, Eric (2008)

Entrepreneurial attitude, innovation and performance among Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises

Forest Policy and Economics, 10(7-8), s. 473- 479. Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2008.04.004

Entrepreneurship and innovativeness have seen considerable attention in the literature. However, little research has focused on micro-scaled enterprises, especially in the context of nature-based tourism. This work investigates how entrepreneurial attitude influences innovativeness and performance in Norwegian nature-based tourism enterprises. Data collection consisted of an e-mail survey and resulted in 178 usable responses. Respondents that exhibit a stronger entrepreneurial attitude appear more likely to change the way they organize their enterprise and tend to have higher income growth. Results point to potential policy actions that could positively impact rural development as well as individual firm actions that may enhance performance. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Lunnan, Anders; Vennesland, Birger & Nybakk, Erlend (2006)

Entrepreneurial attitudes and probability for start-ups - an investigation of Norwegian non-industrial private forest owners

Forest Policy and Economics, 8(7), s. 683- 690. Doi: 10.1016/j.forpol.2005.06.016

Agricultural policy has in the last 50 years taken much of the risk and the initiative away from Norwegian farm forest owners. Subsidies in agriculture have guaranteed an acceptable income and there has been neither need nor incentives for starting up new activities at the farms. This situation is now gradually changing. The income both from agriculture and forestry is decreasing and farm forest owners have either to move, to find job opportunities outside the farm or to start up new activity at the farm using the farm's resources. Entrepreneurship theory is used to study the question why some farm forest owners choose to start up some new activity based on the forest resources they have. We identify two main elements of entrepreneurship; the ability to recognise business opportunities and the ability to take calculated risk. In a survey to 500 forest owners in southern Norway (response rate 45%), we included questions about opportunity recognition and risk aversion. From the answers, we were able to split the forest owners in two groups, those with entrepreneurial attitudes and those without. Using logistic regression we found a significantly higher probability for start-up of new activities in the group with entrepreneurial attitudes. This result has very interesting policy implications. Many studies show that entrepreneurial attitudes to a large degree can be learnt. The first way of learning about entrepreneurship is through the education system and through courses and training of forest owners. The other way is 'learning by doing', which is most probably the most efficient way to learn about entrepreneurship. Public policy should stimulate more owners to 'do', by that they will 'learn' and that will again lead to more entrepreneurial activities at the holdings. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nybakk, Erlend & Lunnan, Anders (1)

Introduction to special issue on bioenergy markets

Biomass & Bioenergy [Kronikk]

Many technical studies related to the development of biomass energy have been conducted. However, for technical solutions to contribute to economic development, they must be accepted in the market. Furthermore, improved knowledge on biomass supply and policy effects is critical in facilitating an increased flow from source to end user. The special issue “Bioenergy markets” contains ten articles which give new insight into the importance of the behaviour of market agents, the function of markets, and biomass supply. It also sheds light on the challenges of both competition between fuel-related and other uses of biomass and competition between biomass and other energy solutions. Moreover, it illustrates the importance of environmental factors and the role of policy in this area.

Skagestad, Eva; Vennesland, Birger & Nybakk, Erlend (2015)

Skogsmaskinentreprenører 3/5 – Ledelse

[Popular scientific article]. Fakta fra Skog og landskap, 15(06) - Full text in research archive

Flere entreprenører i vår studie erkjener at de selv kan bli bedre når det gjelder ledelse og kommunikasjon. Men hva er god ledelse? Og hvordan bli en bedre leder? Vi vil trekke frem noen områder undersøkelsen viser at det er viktig å være bevisst på.

Follo, Gro Irene; Barstad, Johan, Nybakk, Erlend & Talbot, Bruce (2015)

Forest land ownership change in Norway- Country Report: COST Action FP1201

[Report]. European Forest Institute Central-East and South-East.

Rajat, Panwar; Nybakk, Erlend, Pinkse, Jonatan & Eric, Hansen (2015)

Competitive strategies and small firms’ social responsibilities.

[Academic lecture]. The 26th annual meeting of the International Association for Business and Society.

Nybakk, Erlend; Hansen, Eric N., Treu, Andreas & Aase, Tore (2014)

Chemical suppliers and the wood treating industry -Innovation in buyer-supplier relationships

[Academic lecture]. 57th International Convention of Society of Wood Science and Technology.

Gerhard, Weiss; Gun, Lidestav, Nybakk, Erlend, Soina, Quiroga, Suearz, Christina & Anna, Lawrence (2014)

Forest Land Ownership Changes in Europe: State of Knowledge and Conceptual Foundations

[Academic lecture]. Sustaining Forests, Sustaining People: The Role of Research - XXIV IUFRO World Congress.

Panwar, Rajat; Nybakk, Erlend, Hansen, Eric N. & Pinkse, Jonatan (2014)

Ongoing corporate responsibility initiatives amidst an economic downturn

[Academic lecture]. Sustaining Forests, Sustaining People: The Role of Research - XXIV IUFRO World Congress.

Panwar, Rajat; Hansen, Eric N., Pinkse, Jonatan & Nybakk, Erlend (2014)

Small Firms' Ongoing CSR Initiatives Amidst a Financial Downturn

[Academic lecture]. The 74th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Nybakk, Erlend; Hansen, Eric, Treu, Andreas & Aase, Tore (2013)

Supplier views and impact on innovation in the wood treating industry

[Report]. Forest Business Solutions, Oregon State University.

Overview of the chemical suppliers' perspectives and impact on innovation in the wood treating industry Methods: Personal Interviews Data Source: 14 interviews of managers in three chemical companies and three of their customers Key Findings: 1) Managers of companies manufacturing wood preservatives see their customer base as highly conservative and lacking innovation. 2) Big box retailers have an important impact on innovation in the wood treating sector. 3) Chemical suppliers are important for both product

Vennesland, Birger; Skagestad, Eva & Nybakk, Erlend (2013)

What distinguishes successful forest contractor companies from others?

[Report]. Norsk institutt for Skog og landskap.

Hansen, Eric N.; Panwar, Rajat & Nybakk, Erlend (2013)

Financial Performance, CSR Engagement and Potential Benefits of CSR Engagement of US Manufacturing Firms

[Popular scientific article]. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief, 11(2), s. 1- 2.

Hansen, Eric N.; Panwar, Rajat & Nybakk, Erlend (2013)

Effect of strategic choice on business performance during 2008-2011

[Popular scientific article]. Forest Business Solutions Research Brief, 11(1), s. 1- 2.

Nybakk, Erlend & Steffenrem, Arne (2005)

Barkfunksjon for sagtømmer av gran og furu til bruk i hogstmaskiner

[Report]. Skogforsk.

Barkfunksjonene som benyttes i hogstmaskinene i dag, ble laget for fratrekk av barkvolum ved oppgjørsmåling på sagbrukene. De var ikke tiltenkt brukt til aptering av tømmerstokken ved kappeprosessen på hogstmaskiner. Likevel brukes funksjonene til å estimere diameter under bark ved aptering og kapping i hogstmaskiner. Denne rapporten evaluerer bruken av barkfunksjoner i hogstmaskiner og foreslår forbedringer av funksjonene til framtidig bruk. Datagrunnlaget for rapporten er samlet inn fra ca 5000 furustokker og 9500 granstokker. Målingene er foretatt på sagbrukstomt i forbindelse med tømmeroppgjør. Rapporten avdekker stor variasjon i dobbel barktykkelse hos både gran og furu på lik diameter. Diameter er altså ikke tilstrekkelig som forklaringsvariabel ved bruk av funksjoner til å estimere barktykkelse. Spesielt hos furu, der barktype betyr mye, vil det være rom for store systematiske feilestimeringer ved bruk av funksjoner som kun baserer seg på diameter. Men også hos gran er variasjonen svært stor, og andre forklaringsvariabler for å redusere funksjonenes middelfeil bør undersøkes. Dagens bruk av barkfunksjoner for furu i hogstmaskiner ser ut til å være en kilde til systematisk feilestimering. Rapporten foreslår nye funksjoner for beregning av furubark. Disse funksjonene bruker også informasjon om hvorvidt stokken er rotstokk eller ikke. Dette er basert på at sannsynligheten er større for at en rotstokk skal inneholde overgang- eller skorpebark enn en stokk lenger opp på stammen. Stokker lenger opp på stammen vil med større sannsynlighet inneholde glansbark som er betydelig tynnere.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2010 Norwegian University of Life Sciences PhD
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2014 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Associate professor