Purpose: Our purpose is to extend affinity theory in construct domain, scale development, model testing and by discerning affinity and animosity. Design/methodology/approach: We carry out exploratory and empirical research in order to explore the domain and to test the factor structure and the hypotheses through confirmatory analysis. Findings: We find (1) four target country affinity dimensions, (2) consumer affinity impacts micro country image, buying intentions and actual product ownership, and (3) affinity and animosity are distinct constructs with partly shared and partly unique dimensions. Originality/value: The study is the first to empirically test the four dimensions, the first to establish a positive relationship with actual product ownership and micro country image, and the first to contrast the role of the dimensions in affinity and animosity

Nes, Erik Bertin, Rama Yelkur and Ragnhild Silkoset. 2014. “Consumer affinity for foreign countries: construct development, buying behavior consequences and animosity contrasts.” International Business Review, 23(4): 774-784

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