In this article, I explore how the traditional understanding of uncertainty in project management can be revised in light of the philosophical input from Kierkegaard, Dewey, and Wittgenstein. Planning models of projects tend to view uncertainty as a threat to successful project implementation. An alternative approach can emerge from a philosophical investigation of the potentials embedded in surprising turns of events. It is possible to retain a planning orientation to projects while also embracing uncertainty as a potentially energizing dimension of projects—one that can activate positive personal and collective drama in project management.

Kvalnes, Øyvind. 2016. “Living with the unknown unknown: uncertainty in projects.” Project Management Journal, 48(3):101-108

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