Fraud examiners in white-collar crime investigations represent private policing of financial crime. Examiners in crime investigations reconstruct the past to create an account of who did what to make it happen or let it happen. This article addresses the following research question: What is the contribution from fraud examiners in private investigative policing of white-collar crime? Contributions are considered benefits from an investigation. Benefits should exceed costs to make private policing a profitable investment. Based on analysis of five U.S. cases and eight Norwegian cases, private policing does not seem profitable.
Gottschalk, Petter. 2016. "Private policing of financial crime: fraud examiners in white-collar crime investigations." International Journal of Police Science & Management, 18(3):173-183