Fair Labor in the Digitized Economy
A four-year research project funded by the Research Council of Norway
Monday, 23 October 2017 - Two Papers Presented at Reshaping Work 2017, 19th – 20th October, Amsterdam
The Nordic Centre for Internet and Society had two papers presented at the first Reshaping Work Conference, held in Amsterdam.
The Reshaping Work Conference is an international and multidisciplinary conference which offered a platform for academics, policy makers, business leaders, as well as workers in the platform economy to discuss the future of work.
Although the Nordic Centre was unable to be present in person, due to scheduling conflicts with AOIR 2017, two papers co-authored by members of the Nordic Centre (Gemma Newlands and Christoph Lutz) were presented by the co-authors. Both papers looked at aspects of the sharing economy, drawing on research undertaken as part of the EU Horizon2020 Research Project Ps2Share.
The first paper explored the role of data capitalism and surveillance as a factor in the working experience of sharing economy providers. The second paper explored the concept of ‘users-by-proxy’ and how their absence as a data-set creates issues for data-driven work processes.
Monday, 23 October 2017 - Two Papers Presented at Reshaping Work 2017, 19th – 20th October, Amsterdam
The Nordic Centre for Internet and Society was well represented at this year’s Association for Internet Researchers Conference, with two papers presented on the business of Instagram’s sponsored posts and online political participation.
This year’s AOIR conference, held in Tartu, Estonia, welcomed over 350 leading Internet researchers from 29 countries. Researchers discussed their work on a range of topics, from critical data studies, to political communication online, to the future of AI and automation.
The first of the Nordic Centre’s two papers, presented by Gemma Newlands, looked at the emergence of ‘Influencer Marketing’ on Instagram, a leading platform for image-based sharing. Gemma presented the results of an empirical mixed-methods study reliant on user-generated data. The paper was well received, particularly with regard to her in depth discussion into ethical research practices.
The second of the Nordic Centre’s two papers, presented by Christoph Lutz, looked at the role of social media escapism in online political participation. This paper was also well received and its data-driven approach provided a welcome interlude to the numerous more conceptual papers on offer at AOIR this year.
Both papers will appear in Selected Papers of Internet Research (SPIR), an open access collection of papers in the coming months.
Wednesday, 04 October 2017 - Three Research Reports Published on the Sharing Economy
Three reports have been published by researchers within the Fair Labor Project on the topic of the Sharing Economy. These reports form one element of a sister European Union Horizon 2020 Research Project: Ps2Share ‘Participation, Privacy, and Power in the Sharing Economy’.
All reports are available on the documentation page of the ps2share.eu website.
Thursday, 17 August 2017 - Christoph Lutz Wins Best Paper Award at #SMSociety 2017
Christoph Lutz wins the best paper award at the 8th International Conference on Social Media & Society, in Toronto, for the paper "Spiral of Silence 2.0: Political Self-Censorship among Young Facebook Users".
Tuesday, 15 August 2017 - Academy of Management 2017
We just returned from this year’s Academy of Management Conference in Atlanta, where we had the pleasure to meet with colleagues, exchange ideas on upcoming research on the gig economy, and present a number of work-in-progress manuscripts.
As part of the Academy, we were provided with the opportunity to host a caucus on our upcoming special issue in Human Resource Management Review, to meet with prospective authors, and explore potential submissions to the issue. With the great support of the Journal’s editorial board members, we spent an afternoon working on critical reflections on existing concepts, theories, or frameworks that may need a refining in the context of the digitized economy.
We furthermore presented our own ongoing research on three occasions, in the Information Systems, Social Issues in Management, and Human Relations divisions respectively.
Our manuscript ‘The Oversharing Economy – Investigating Authenticity on Airbnb’ is about the role and manufacture of authenticity notions as part of the sharing economy. Based on qualitative and quantitative research, we show, by the example of Airbnb, that guests are remarkably resilient against notions of interpersonal closeness inherent in sharing services and they may, up to a certain point, even be seen as markers of authenticity that enrich the sharing experience.
In our manuscript ‘The Riddle of Social Media Dialogues – When Less Dialogue is More’ we experimentally explore the cconnection between cognitive CSR-communication outcomes and the conversational logic employed. We show that when talking about societal issues, organizations need to provide clear guidance (moderation) when delivering necessary information. Otherwise, we conjecture that stakeholders might be overwhelmed by the complexity of the issue.
We also presented our ongoing research on ‘Collaborative Career Crafting in the Gig Economy’. In our research, we are interested how gig workers manage their career, reach out to coworkers, and to gather social support to further their career goals. As part of our research, we raised in discussed a number of related policy questions, such as whether there is a responsibility on the facilitating platform’s side to provide crafting opportunities, or whether the responsibility solely lies with the workers.
During the paper sessions, workshops and many informal conversations we received very valuable feedback for our work going forward, and explored opportunities to further enlarge our network of international collaborators. We are thankful for the opportunity to present our work on the social issues of the digital economy, and are looking forward to the next academy conference.
Tuesday, 11 July 2017 - Paper Development Workshop at the EGOS Conference
We held a Paper Development Workshop for our upcoming special issue on the Responsibilities of the Sharing Economy in the Journal of Business Ethics during this year's EGOS conference
Friday, 30 June 2017 - New article on Digital Labor in the Journal of Business Ethics
Our new research looks into the working relations within the platform economy, and what makes good and fair digital labor.
Friday, 30 June 2017 - New article on coping with unemployment online
New research published in Social Science Computer Review unveils how the Internet factors into coping with unemployment.
Monday, 26 June 2017 - Connected Life 2017 Conference
Gemma Newlands and Christoph Lutz gave a talk about Instagram influencers at the 2017 Connected Life Conference in Oxford.
Monday, 26 June 2017 - New Article on Privacy in the Sharing Economy
Christoph Lutz, Christian Fieseler and Eliane Bucher, together with Christian Hoffmann (University of Leipzig), published a new study about the topic of privacy in the sharing economy.
Tuesday, 30 May 2017 - Dominique Kost attends Community, Work and Family Conferece
Dominique Kost attended this year’s CWF conference in Milan, hosted by the Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, and presented the center’s current research findings on Life crafting. The title of the presentation was: “Micro-entrepreneurs: the art of Life crafting” and addresses careers of digital microworkers. Dominique discussed how digital microworkers craft their careers and choose their jobs to cope with their current life demands, and that digital microwork can have a meaningful impact on people’s lives.
For more information about the conference: http://dipartimenti.unicatt.it/sociologia-cwf-conference-presentation#content
Friday, 10 March 2017 - Four Papers accepted at EAWOP Conference, May 17th - 20th 2017
Our centre members together have a total of four papers accepted for presentation at the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology 2017.
Overall, these papers look at how different organizational factors that may influence how individuals working in virtual teams view their work and their subsequent behavioral and psychological responses.
One paper investigates how crowdworkers respond to feedback when doing creative work. The study shows that individuals with high creative self-efficacy appear to withdraw their creativity when their avoidance performance orientation is high. The study points to performance anxiety could be the cause for such withdrawal.
Another paper looks at the congruence effect between leaders’ and followers’ pessimism personalities on subsequent job satisfaction and performance. The study indicates that, for individuals who work remotely such as virtual teams, the more they are different from their leaders in term of pessimism personality, the less satisfied they are with poorer performance. The authors argue that the lack of shared mental model between the leaders and the followers may explain these relationships.
The third study look at how individuals may interpret job descriptions when it comes to flexibility in work practices. The study demonstrates that individuals tend to identify organizations which offer flexibile work practices as future looking and associate positively to those organizations. This study provides important implications for human resource management policy for organizations.
The last study proposes that the role of leadership may differ between traditional teams and virtual teams, such that in virtual teams the need for relationship focused leadership is stronger than in traditional teams where team members may rely on other social stimuli to function.
Wednesday, 08 March 2017 - Christoph Lutz gives talk on Robotics at HRI Conference in Vienna, 7th March 2017
Christoph Lutz gave a talk in the context of the 2017 ACM/IEEE Human-Robot-Interaction (HRI) conference in Vienna.
The talk took place in the Privacy-Sensitive Robotics workshop, which gathered leading robotics experts from academia, industry and NGOs.
Christoph’s presentation addressed the privacy implications of social robots, presenting first findings from a survey on privacy concerns about social robots.
Christoph also discussed the privacy-related conclusions from two workshops held in November 2016 at robotics and AI conferences in Spain and Japan (in collaboration with Eduard Fosch Villaronga from the University of Twente and Aurelia Tamò from the University of Zurich).
The workshop participants in Vienna brainstormed on pressing issues and possible collaborations, showing both the business case and social necessity for considering privacy as an important issue in developing ever-smarter robots.
More information about the workshop can be found here
More information about HRI 2017 can be found here
Monday, 20 February 2017 - Workshop on Youth Labor at Harvard University
In February 2017, the Nordic Centre for Internet and Society held a workshop at Harvard University alongside the Youth and Media Team from the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society
As part of our ongoing Norwegian Research Council funded Research Project 'Fair Labor in the Digitized Economy', we are investigating the thresholds between youth participation on the internet and what could otherwise be considered youth labor. With a focus on ensuring fairness in the future digital labor market, we are looking at how young people interact with, and transition into, the digital economy.
We have been collaborating with Harvard's Youth and Media Team, as led by Sandra Cortesi, and this workshop was an opportunity to reaffirm our agenda going forward and make headway on current ongoing work.
In particular, we are currently collaborating on several state-of-the-art literature reviews, including pieces on 'Aspirational Labor' and 'Skills and Participation'. We are also conducting a series of Focus Groups with young people in American cities to explore these topics further.
The Youth and Media team have been invited to Oslo and will visit the Nordic Centre later this year.
Please visit the Youth and Media Website
Friday, 17 February 2017 - Presentation about 'Spiral of Silence' on Facebook at DGPUK Conference in Jena, 16th February 2017
Christoph Lutz presented a study about young Facebook users in Germany and their online political engagement in Jena (Germany).
The paper, co-authored with Christian Pieter Hoffmann of the University of Leipzig, applies the spiral of silence theory and tests it with data from an online survey with almost 1000 Facebook users in Germany, aged 18-30.
The spiral of silence theory was developed in the context of mass media in the 1970ies. It says that individuals censor themselves (i.e., they do not speak their minds) if they feel their opinion on a controversial topic, such as immigration, is the minority opinion.
Christoph and Christian confirmed the theory for social media. They included users’ network heterogeneity, i.e., whether the respondents’ Facebook friends are politically homogeneous (most of their Facebook friends have the same political stance) or heterogeneous (the political attitudes of their Facebook friends vary widely).
The analysis showed that Facebook users with a heterogeneous network think that their opinion is the minority opinion more often, which leads to a lowered willingness to speak out on controversial political topics.
The findings point to important dynamics of self-censorship on social media, a topic heatedly debated around the recent US elections, with filter bubbles, and echo chambers.
Tuesday, 31 January 2017 - Visit from University of Ljubljiana
In January 2017, our collaborator Dr. Matej Cerne, together with Aldjana Bunjak, visited our centre for a three-day research workshop on our collaborative research projects. During the workshop, we set up a new research project proposal and consolidated the data analyses for one of our studies. The workshop was fruitful.
Sunday, 04 December 2016 - New Friends Conference, 2nd - 4th November 2016.
Dr. Christoph Lutz presented his research on social robots at the New Friends 2016 Conference in Barcelona.
The conference took place on November 2-4 at La Salle (University Ramon Llull) and was organized by a team of researchers across the globe. In addition to his presentation on “Privacy Concerns and Social Robots” (with co-author Aurelia Tamò from the University of Zurich),
Christoph – together with two collaborators – also moderated a workshop on the ethical, legal, and social (ELS) issues of social robots in Healthcare and Education. The 4-hour workshop was a success and engaged robotics scholars from various backgrounds in lively discussions about the ELS challenges.
Friday, 11 November 2016 - Keynote at Oslo Innovation Week, 19th October 2016
The Nordic Centre for Internet & Society was well represented at Oslo Innovation Week 2016 when Dr. Sut I Wong gave a keynote talk on Digital Communication in China.
Sut I, whose research focuses on leadership, empowerment, and the effects of culture on organizations, discussed China’s emerging digital communication trend. Her talk explored the respective business opportunities and challenges which develop for companies when entering the Chinese market and how work organization is related to internal organizational communication.
Friday, 11 November 2016 - Leadership Competencies in the Digital Age, BI Alumni Day 2016
As part of BI’s Alumni Day 2016, the Nordic Centre’s own Dr. Sut I Wong discussed the role of leadership in the digital age.
With emerging technologies and ongoing business innovation, it is clear that the way we work is changing. Plentiful evidence derived from leadership research has directed us toward the conclusion that great leaders develop deep and trusting relationships. However, due to the geographic dispersion among employees, the machine-human interaction phenomenon driven by digitization in business, creates great challenges for the role of leadership. Sut I, with a keen eye for these future developments, presented a thought-provoking talk on the future of leadership. She asked ‘What does it take to be a great leader in the digital age?’
Saturday, 08 October 2016 - Online Participation Paper Presented at AOIR 2016, 5th - 8th October, Berlin
BI’s own Christoph Lutz presented his paper on Online Participation and chaired a session on Digital Divides.
This year’s annual AOIR conference, held at the Humboldt University of Berlin, welcomed over 550 participants from over 30 countries. Leading Internet researchers displayed their work on critical issues, with a focus on social media participation, algorithms, precarious digital labour, crowdwork, and Artificial Intelligence.
AOIR was also a notably inclusive conference where a great number of feminist scholars and those discussing racial topics had a platform. Christoph is very excited about attending next year’s conference, held in Estonia and looks forward to presenting his research there again.
Thursday, 25 August 2016 - New Article on Internet Use published in New Media & Society
The article "Benefits and harms from Internet use: A differentiated analysis of Great Britan" by Christoph Lutz and Grant Blank (Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford) was published in New Media & Society.
The piece looks at the positive and negative outcomes from using the Internet among different population segments in Great Britain. Drawing on rich survey data from more than 1000 individuals, the authors show that highly educated and elderly Internet users profit more from their Internet use than less educated and younger users. However, educated users are also most at risk to be harmed, for example by having their credit card information stolen or being misrepresented online.
Saturday, 20 August 2016 - New Article on Mobile Dating published in Mobile Media & Communication
The article "Love at first swipe? Explaining Tinder self-presentation and motives" by Christoph Lutz and Giulia Ranzini (VU Amsterdam) was published in Mobile Media & Communication.
In their article, the authors investigate the mobile dating app Tinder. Using an online survey of 500 users, they find that most users present themselves authentically but a substantial number reveals deceptive selves. Moreover, the motivations for using Tinder differ between men and women and are influenced by psychological characteristics such as self-esteem and narcissism.
Friday, 12 August 2016 - Many Presentations at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Anaheim, CA
We had all together five research papers presented at Academy of Management in Anaheim this year. The topics of the papers were from various disciplines, including leadership, team research, organizational communication and information system, managerial and organizational cognition.
The five papers elaborate the issues of 1) the role of network centrality using ResearchGate for academics; 2) how crowdworkers experience meaning of their work; 3) the role of transactive memory system on virtual team performance; 4) the role of (in)congruent leader member exchange on employee voice; and 5) the role of gamification on corporate social responsibility.
We especially congratulate Dominique and her co-authors, whose paper was included in the best paper proceedings. We also had many productive research meetings for the ongoing as well as future research projects
Monday, 18 July 2016 - Presentation and a Prize at the Social Media & Society Conference
BI’s Nordic Centre for Internet & Society was present at the 7th International Social Media & Society Conference. The conference was organized by a team of researchers from Canada and Great Britain and took place at Goldsmiths University in London (UK).
Over 3 days in July 2016, leading social media researchers displayed their full papers, work in progress papers, and posters. Christoph Lutz presented a paper alongside co-author Grant Blank from the University of Oxford (Oxford Internet Institute). The paper dealt with the inequalities in social media use of six platforms in Great Britain: Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+ and Instagram.
The presentation received positive feedback from the audience and the full article is available in the conference proceedings. In addition to receiving positive feedback and a lot of inspiration on the current state of social media research, Christoph Lutz (@lutzid) also won the “Most Engaged Attendee on Twitter” award.
Monday, 11 July 2016 - Sharing and Digital Labor Presentation at this year's EGOS
Christian Fieseler and Christoph Lutz of BI’s Nordic Centre for Internet & Society gave two presentations at this year’s Annual Colloquium of the European Group for Organizational Studies (EGOS) in Naples, Italy.
EGOS is a large and influential association for organizational research. Its Annual Colloquium is among the most prestigious conferences in management studies and has grown to be a meeting point for cutting edge empirical, conceptual, and critical research on all forms of organizations.
This year’s Colloquium had the topic “Organizing in the Shadow of Power” and convened more than 2000 international attendants. Christian Fieseler presented a paper co-authored with Eliane Bucher and Christian P. Hoffmann (University of Leipzig) about inequality on the crowdworking platform “Mechanical Turk”. Christoph Lutz’s paper (co-authored with Christian Fieseler, Eliane Bucher and Christian P. Hoffmann) revolved around privacy concerns in the sharing economy. Using survey data from 374 Airbnb hosts, the presentation showed the important role of trust in this context.
It also pointed towards a new sharing paradox where, while users are concerned about their privacy when they share on Airbnb, these concerns don’t result in more or less sharing. Both presentations received helpful and encouraging feedback and were positively received.
Wednesday, 22 June 2016 - Inaugural Advisory Board Meeting
This June, the Centre had its first advisory board meeting. This newly established advisory board helps the Centre shape its overall research, fundraising and outreach strategy, and currently consists of members from HR-Norge, Basefarm, Wikimedia, Accenture, Startup Norway, Innovasjon Norge, NHO, Cisco, Telenor, and IKT Norge.
Saturday, 18 June 2016 - Visit to McMaster University
Sut I visited McMaster University in Hamilton, Canada, in June. The purpose of this visit was to discuss and brainstorm the ongoing research projects with Dr. Catherine E. Connelly, who holds a Canada Research Chair in organizational behaviour and is an Associate Professor of human resources and management at McMaster University’s DeGroote School of Business.
Dr. Connelly investigates knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding in organizations, employees’ use of different communication methods, and leader well-being. Much of her work look into the work related issues for digital workers.
Friday, 17 June 2016 - The Centre at the International Communication Association Conference 2016
Four members of BI’s Nordic Centre for Internet & Society presented their research at this year’s Annual Conference of the International Communication Association in Fukuoka, Japan.
The International Communication Association (ICA) is the largest academic association for communication and media research. Now in its 66th edition, its annual conference features cutting edge research by leading researchers in the field and is the most prestigious gathering of communication scholars worldwide.
More than 3000 conference attendants came to Fukuoka, a new record for the Annual Meeting. Christian Fieseler, Eliane Bucher, Kateryna Maltseva and Christoph Lutz gave a total of eight talks, showcasing the broad and current research conducted at the Centre. The topics of their talks ranged from motivations to participate in the sharing economy (Eliane’s, Christian’s and Christoph’s piece, which was recently published in Computers in Human Behavior), to crowdworkers’ fairness perception of platforms as intermediaries (Eliane and Christian) and users’ self-presentation on the dating app Tinder (Christoph). Kateryna’s paper was part of a poster session and discussed gamificiation in corporate social responsibility communication.
Joint papers with external researchers also demonstrated the BICIS’ strong connection to a range of international institutions: Christian co-authored a paper with Michael Etter from Copenhagen Business School. This collaboration forms part of the Norwegian Research Council funded project on “Fair Labor in the Digitized Economy”. Christoph’s papers included the co-authorship with the universities of Leipzig (Christian Hoffmann), VU Amsterdam (Giulia Ranzini), Oxford (Grant Blank), and Zurich/Harvard (Aurelia Tamo).
The papers were well received and stirred engaging and interesting discussions. They are currently being revised for publication in journals or already published. The conference also created a good amount of social media attention, with the conference hashtag becoming a trending Twitter topic and generating several thousand tweets.
Tuesday, 26 April 2016 - Visit from Slovenia
Our collaborators, Dr. Matej Cerne, and his PhD student, Ms. Aldijana Bunjak, from the University of Ljubljana have just been visiting our centre in April.
Dr. Cerne’s research focuses on team processes and leadership roles in employee innovation and creativity. In particular, he has done extensive work on knowledge sharing and knowledge hiding among team members, which has been published in top-tier international journals such as the Academy of Management Journal.
During their three days research workshop together with Christian and Sut I, they planned out a series of research projects looking into online leader emergence and incivility, and the role of reflection on online feedback among digital workers. These projects will be carried out in different stages with different research method designs, including experiments, as well as field and intervention studies.
Friday, 22 April 2016 - Leader Toolbox Seminar on Leadership in the Digital AgLeader Toolbox Seminar on Leadership in the Digital Age at BI, Osloe at BI, Oslo
The article "What's mine is yours (for a nominal fee) – Exploring the spectrum of utilitarian to altruistic motives for Internet-mediated sharing" by Eliane , Christian and Christoph has been accepted in Computers in Human Behavior and is now available online. In their article, the authors discuss that social-hedonic motives are the strongest predictor of Internet-mediated sharing, such as on platforms as AirBnB, and that monetary incentives may be necessary but not sufficient for online sharing.
Monday, 18 April 2016 - Presentation at HR Årskonferanse 2016 – Collaborating Blind - How Virtual Teams Work
In May, Dominique will present some of her research findings at this years HR Norway conference. The topic of the talk is: “Collaborating blind - How virtual teams work”. Teams often have to solve complex tasks under time pressure.
This situation becomes even more complicated when team members are distributed across several locations. We often refer to these teams as virtual teams. Some of the questions Dominique is going to address in her talk are: How can members of virtual teams effectively use each other’s knowledge and expertise? How can teams effectively distribute tasks among each other? How do we know when and with whom to share what type of information?
Thursday, 14 April 2016 - Paper on Virtual Teams chosen for the Academy of Management's Best Paper Proceedings
Dominique's paper “Transactive Memory systems in virtual teams: The effect of integration and differentiation on performance.” was selected by the reviewers to be one of the best papers accepted at this year's Academy of Management conference in Anaheim, and will be published in this year's conference proceedings. The paper highlights the importance of task dependencies in the knowledge sharing performance relationship in virtual teams.
Friday, 01 April 2016 - Paper presented on Robotics and Privacy at the 2016 We Robot Conference, April 1-2 2016, Miami
The privacy implications of social robots are far-reaching and concern both informational and physical privacy. In their conference presentation, Christoph and co-author Aurelia Tamò from the ETH Zürich addressed the privacy implications of healthcare robots. Their main contribution of their talk was on mapping the privacy ecosystem in robotic healthcare technology, and analyzing the complex interplay of robots and humans.
Saturday, 27 February 2016 - Paper Presentation at the Computer Supported Collaborative Work Conference in San Francisco
Dominique participated at a workshop and presented the paper “Finding meaning in a hopeless place – The construction of meaning in crowdwork” written together with Sut I and Christian.
In traditional organizations, employers take responsibility for training and development of their employees. However, the relationships between platform and crowdworkers on the one hand, and between requesters and crowdworkers on the other hand, are temporary and not fixed.
Hence, the question arises what kind of responsibility platforms and requester have towards their crowdworkers and who is the responsible party, the platform or the requester. This was one of the questions discussed at this year’s CSCW conference in San Francisco.
Friday, 26 February 2016 - Leader Toolbox Seminar on Leadership in the Digital Age at BI, Oslo
How may technologies affect us at work? As part of BI's public lecture series, Sut I and Christian discussed with around 200 participants the changing role if leadership in the digital landscape. Among the topics discussed were new forms of division of labor among humans and robots, new ways of leading platform workers, and how to manage the increasingly blurry lines between work, private and play.
Friday, 15 January 2016 - Article in BI Business Review on Communication in Virtual Teams
Solving complex time critical tasks in teams is common in most organizations. What makes this situation even more challenging is when the team is distributed over several locations and communication is restricted to email and maybe short video exchanges. People commonly describe these type of teams as “virtual” or distributed teams. This team context raises several critical questions for team collaboration which Dominique discusses in her article, among others: How do team members learn about each other’s knowledge? How do team members know with whom to share information at what point in time? In addition, how do they divide tasks efficiently among themselves?
Thursday, 24 December 2015 - Mindfulness WorkLab (EAWOP) in Nuremberg Germany
Sut I attended the Mindfulness WorkLab organized by the European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP) in Nuremberg in November 2015.
Speakers and the participants from both academia and practice discussed the current research and the application of mindfulness, tools, techniques to challenges of emotional regulation at work. In particular, Sut I was interested in how digital mindfulness tools may help us in the emotional regulation process.