Nordic Centre for Internet and Society
The Nordic Centre for Internet and Society is a globally-oriented research centre, dedicated to understanding the influence of new internet technologies on working life and society.
Gemma Newlands, Christoph Lutz and Christian Fieseler
Collective Action and Provider Classification in the Sharing Economy - Our New Article in New Technology, Work and Employment
The article Collective Action and Provider Classification in the Sharing Economy by Gemma Newlands, Christoph Lutz and Christian Fieseler was published in the prestigious journal New Technology, Work and Employment. Using data from 386 sharing economy providers (e.g., Airbnb hosts, Uber drivers) across 12 European countries, the authors investigate soft forms of provider self-organization and attitudes towards collective action. They also look at provider self-classification: the question whether sharing economy providers see themselves as independent contractors or as employees of sharing platforms. The findings point to varied opinions and practices, with five overarching clusters that range from collective action enthusiasts to collective active opponents. Sharing modalities such as motivations, sharing frequency and the main platform where providers offer access to their goods differentiate these clusters. For example, Uber drivers are more positive towards collective action and also have a stronger preference to be classified as employees compared with Airbnb hosts and BlaBlaCar drivers. The article can be found here.
Christoph Lutz and Gemma Newlands
Consumer Segmentation within the Sharing Economy - Our New Article in the Journal of Business Research
In our new article 'Consumer segmentation within the sharing economy: The case of Airbnb', published in the Journal of Business Research, we find that the users of Airbnb services are distinguished by their use-type (selecting shared rooms vs entire homes) and that income, education, gender, and travel modality predict accomodation choices. Utilizing a mixed methods approach, with both a quantitative survey and a qualitative content analysis of Airbnb listings, we compare two different types of accommodation offered on Airbnb: shared room and entire home.
Our key findings in this paper highlight how Airbnb hosts strongly target their listings for consumer segments, but that guest choice and host targeting do not align, leading to potential innefficiency in the market.
The paper can be found here
Eliane Bucher, Christian Fieseler, Matthes Fleck, and Christoph Lutz
Authenticity and the Sharing Economy – Our New Article in Academy of Management Discoveries
In our new article in Academy of Management Discoveries, we were interested in the notion of authenticity in the sharing economy. The sharing economy is witnessing an interesting balance, where on the one side, platforms and providers like to brand authentic experiences, and clients claim to actively seek such experiences. However, at the same time, the sharing economy is increasingly becoming professionalized, witnessing an outgrowth of third-party service provider and less acceptance for service failures.
Against this background, based on a qualitative interview-study as well as on a quantitative survey among users of the room sharing platform Airbnb, we show how the degree of perceived authenticity may impact review behavior and customer loyalty. Our results point to the integral nature of both authenticity and the invocation of notions of authenticity for sharing business models who are reliant, by their very nature, on alleviating the imperfections of amateur production.
REFERENCE: Bucher, E., Fieseler, C., Fleck, M., & Lutz, C. (2017). Authenticity and the sharing economy. Academy of Management Discoveries. https://doi.org/10.5465/amd.2016.0161
Dominique Kost, Christian Fieseler, and Sut I Wong
Finding Meaning in Crowdwork – Our New Article in Computers in Human Behavior
Our new article in Computers in Human Behavior focuses on how crowdworkers construct meaningfulness, based on the accounts of workers on the crowdsourcing platform Amazon Mechanical Turk. We draw upon a relational job design perspective to explore why microworkers experience meaningfulness in their work. We found four sources of meaningfulness: rewards, self-improvement, moral, and social. These four sources vary in the degree to which they were internal or external in focus, and in their level of rationalization (concrete or abstract). This may explain why such types of employment are appealing despite a lack of organizational-support structures and points to the need to better understand cue provision in virtual, platform-enabled work settings.
REFERENCE: Kost, D., Fieseler, C., & Wong, S. (2018). Finding meaning in a hopeless place? The construction of meaningfulness in digital microwork. Computers in Human Behavior, 82, 101-110.
Christoph Lutz and Christian Hoffmann
Paper on ResearchGate and Altmetrics published in Social Science Computer Review
The article Making Academic Social Capital Visible: Relating SNS-Based, Alternative and Traditional Metrics of Scientific Impact by Christoph Lutz and Christian Pieter Hoffmann (University of Leipzig) was published in the prestigious journal Social Science Computer Review (2017 Impact Factor of 2.293). Based on a social network analysis of follower-following relationships on ResearchGate and extensive bibliometric data about 300 scholars at a Swiss university, the authors investigate how different metrics of scientifc impact relate to each other. The findings indicate that metrics derived from specific-purpose social media and social networking services such as Mendeley correlate strongly with established citation metrics such as researchers' Google Scholar and Web of Science h-index. Metrics derived from general-purpose social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter, on the other hand, have only weak correlations with established citation metrics. Finally, centrality in the ResearchGate network has moderate correlations with most other indicators assessed, showing future potential of social network analysis-based metrics of impact assessment. Such centrality measures might indeed capture academic social capital. The article can be found here.
Christoph Lutz and Grant Blank
Paper on the Representativeness of Social Media Platforms published in American Behavioral Scientist
Christoph, together with Grant Blank from the Oxford Internet Institute (University of Oxford), published a new article, entitled "Representativeness of Social Media in Great Britain: Investigating Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter, Pinterest, Google+, and Instagram", in the prestigious journal American Behavioral Scientist. The authors investigate how different social media platforms differ in their user base in terms of demographic, socio-economic, and attitudinal characteristics. Using rich and high quality data from the Oxford Internet Survey, they find pronounced age and socio-economic differences. Facebook, for example, is used more heavily among young individuals and women as well as users with access to mobile devices and high levels of self-efficacy. The findings have implications for social media research, as no platform is representative of the broader population. The paper can be found here.
Christian Fieseler, Eliane Bucher and Christian Hoffmann
Paper on Fairness and Crowdworking published in the Journal of Business Ethics
Christian, Eliane and Christian Hoffmann (University of Leipzig) just published a new article named "Unfairness by Design? The Perceived Fairness of Digital Labor on Crowdworking Platforms" in the Journal of Business Ethics. In the article, we analyze institutional biases embedded in on-demand crowdworking platforms and their effect on perceived workplace fairness. We find a triadic relationship between employers, workers, and platform providers, where platform providers have the power to design settings and processes that affect workers’ fairness perceptions. The article can be found here.
Christian Fieseler, Severina Müller, Miriam Meckel & Anne Suphan
Paper about Coping with Unemployment published in Social Science Computer Review
Christian, together with Severina Müller (University of St. Gallen), Miriam Meckel (Wirtschaftswoche) and Anne Suphan (University of Hohenheim) just had a new article published in Social Science Computer Review. The article named "Time Well Wasted? Online Procrastination during Times of Unemployment" examines the argument regarding whether perceived social exclusion during unemployment leads to procrastination through online media, which in turn lessens the job search efforts of the unemployed. Based on data from unemployed Internet users, we argue that online procrastination plays an important role in the lives of the unemployed but has no immediate effects on their perceived job search efforts, but contextual factors such as motivational control play an important role. The article can be found here
Christoph Lutz, Christian Hoffmann, Eliane Bucher and Christian Fieseler
Paper about Privacy published in Information, Communication & Society
Christoph, Eliane and Christian, together with Christian Hoffmann (University of Leipzig), published a new article, entitled "The role of privacy concerns in the sharing economy", in the prestigious journal Information, Communication & Society. In this paper, the authors investigate how privacy concerns about Airbnb - both online and offline during the stay - affect users' sharing behavior. In addition, they look at the role of trust and the perceived benefits of sharing through Airbnb. Based on the analysis of survey data from 374 Airbnb hosts, the authors find that privacy concerns have no significant effect on sharing behavior but trust and the perception of monetary benefits influence sharing positively. This leads to the notion of a sharing paradox, in line with previous research finding divergence between privacy attitudes and behavior. The paper can be found here.
Christoph Lutz, Christian Hoffmann and Miriam Meckel
Paper about Serendipity published in JASIST
The article Online serendipity: A contextual differentiation of antecedents and outcomes by Christoph Lutz, Christian Pieter Hoffmann (University of Leipzig), and Miriam Meckel (Wirtschaftswoche) was published in the prestigious Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology (JASIST). Based on a large survey in Germany with over 1000 respondents, the authors investigate the phenomenon of serendipity on the Internet. Serendipity describes unexpected experiences prompted by a valuable interaction with ideas or information. In colloquial terms, serendipity means stumbling upon something useful or finding something valuable without looking for it. The study demonstrates how trust, self-efficacy and the disclosure of personal information on the Internet foster serendipity experiences. It also sheds light on the context by distinguishing between online shopping, social media, and information environments such as search. Only in the social media context serendipity leads to higher sastisfaction with the service, but not in the online shopping and information scenario.
Christoph Lutz and Giulia Ranzini
Paper about Privacy on Tinder published in Social Media + Society
The article "Where Dating Meets Data: Investigating Social and Institutional Privacy Concerns on Tinder" by Christoph Lutz and Giulia Ranzini (VU Amsterdam) was published in the open access journal "Social Media + Society". It is freely available under the following link. In this study, the authors investigate the mobile dating app Tinder. Using an online survey of almost 500 users, they find that most users' privacy concerns about instiutional threats (such as data collection by Tinder and selling data to third parties) are more pronounced than their concerns about social privacy threats (for example, stalking by other users and hacking). The analysis also reveals the role of motives and psychological factors in predicting both types of privacy concerns.
Sut I Wong
New Publication on Subordinate Empowerment in the Internatiaonal Journal of Human Resource Management
Sut I recently published a study at International Journal of Human Resource Management, entitled “Influencing upward: Subordinates’ responses to leaders’ (un)awareness of their empowerment expectations”. In this study, Sut I investigated how subordinates engage in upward influence behaviors to voice their opinions on empowerment practices to their leaders. Data were collected from 114 pairs of leader-subordinate dyads at a manufacturing firm. Based on cross-level polynomial regression and response surface analyses, the present study found that the less the leaders were aware of subordinates’ empowerment expectations, the more the subordinates engaged in upward influence behaviors, namely rational persuasion and inspirational appeals. Moreover, high leader-subordinate task interdependence and subordinate self-efficacy as moderators amplified the (in)congruent relationships. The results contribute to empowerment literature by providing valuable insight into the bottom-up influence in the empowerment process.
Christoph Lutz and Christian Hoffmann
Paper on Online Participation published in Information, Communication, & Society
Christoph Lutz recently published a new article, entitled "The Dark Side of Online Participation", in the prestigious journal “Information, Communication & Society”. The paper introduces a new typology of online participation and is co-authored with Christian Pieter Hoffmann from the University of Leipzig. Through focus groups with almost 100 Internet users in Germany, Christoph and Christian derived a typology of online participation with eight forms along three axes. The forms address a range of biases in the literature such as a positivity bias, a political bias and an agency bias. The paper can be found here.
Sut I Wong
Upcoming Conference Paper on Leadership Identity Inventory
Together with 26 international scholars, Sut I has a paper on leadership identity inventory (ILI) to be presented at European Association of Social Psychology in Granada in July 2017. The social identity approach to leadership has had increasing impact in recent years. Many studies have shown, for instance, that more prototypical leaders are more effective - for example, they are typically trusted more, secure more follower support and have greater leeway to make decisions. More recently, in addition to identity prototypicality (or “being one of us“), three further dimensions of identity leadership have been identified (Haslam, Reicher & Platow, 2011): identity advancement (“doing it for us“), identity entrepreneurship (“crafting a sense of us“) and identity impressarioship (“making us matter“). All four dimensions have recently been operationalized with the Identity Leadership Inventory (ILI; Steffens et al., 2014). This presentation introduces and presents first results of an ongoing international project, the ILI-Global, which applies and validates the ILI scales by gathering data from all six continents and more than 20 countries with over 3800 participants. The ILI has been translated (using back-translation methods) and used in online surveys along with other measures of leadership (LMX, transformational and authentic leadership) and employee attitudes and (self-reported) behaviors (e.g., satisfaction, identification, citizenship behaviors) in 15 different languages. The results of ILI-Global confirm the validity of the ILI across cultures. We show that the four dimensions of the ILI are distinguishable and that they contribute to the prediction of work-related attitudes and behaviors above and beyond other influential leadership constructs.
Elizabeth Solberg and Sut I Wong
New Paper on Job-Crafting published in The Leadership Quarterly
In a study published at The Leadership Quarterly, entitled 'Crafting One’s Job to Take Charge of Role Overload: When Proactivity Requires Adaptivity Across Levels', Elizabeth Solberg and Professor Wong investigate employees’ job crafting behavior in the context of perceived role overload. They identify employees’ perceived ability to deal with work change (i.e., “perceived adaptivity”) and leaders’ need for structure as moderators positively influencing this relationship. A two-wave panel field study of 47 leaders and 143 employees in a Norwegian manufacturing firm found that perceived role overload related negatively to employees’ job crafting, as hypothesized. Employees’ perceived adaptivity alone did not increase job crafting in role overload situations, as predicted. Rather, the relationship between perceived role overload and job crafting was only positive when employees’ perceived adaptivity was high and their leaders’ need for structure was low. Thus, employees’ job crafting in role overload situations depends on the interactive fit between employees’ and leaders’ adaptive capabilities providing important implications for the socially embedded theory of job crafting.
Christian Hoffmann, Christoph Lutz, and Giulia Ranzini
Paper on Online Privacy published in Cyberpsychology
The paper “Privacy cynicism: A new approach to the privacy paradox” came out in the open access journal “Cyberpsychology” and is freely available. The paper can be found here. In this piece, Christoph and his co-authors, Christian Hoffmann (University of Leipzig) and Giulia Ranzini (VU Amsterdam), investigate privacy attitudes in Germany with focus group data. They find that many Internet users are cynical when it comes to their online privacy, expressing feelings of distrust, uncertainty, powerlessness, and resignation.
Christoph Lutz, Pepe Strathoff, Aurelia Tamò, and Flavius Kehr
Paper on Online Privacy published in ex ante
The paper “Privacy through Multiple Lenses: Applying the St. Galler Privacy Interaction Framework (SG-PIF)”, co-authored with Aurelia Tamò, Pepe Strathoff and Flavius Kehr and published in ex ante, describes a multi-level perspective on online privacy, based on ecological systems theory. Online privacy is conceptualized on four different levels and their interactions: the personal level, organizations, society, and the government. The authors apply this framework – the SG-PIF – to email tracking and thus show its usefulness.
Christoph Lutz and Grant Blank
Paper on Internet Use published in New Media & Society
The article "Benefits and harms from Internet use: A differentiated analysis of Great Britan" by Christoph Lutz and Grant Blank (Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford) was published in New Media & Society. The piece looks at the positive and negative outcomes from using the Internet among different population segments in Great Britain. Drawing on rich survey data from more than 1000 individuals, the authors show that highly educated and elderly Internet users profit more from their Internet use than less educated and younger users. However, educated users are also most at risk to be harmed, for example by having their credit card information stolen or being misrepresented online. The paper can be found here.
Christoph Lutz and Giulia Ranzini
Paper on Mobile Dating published in Mobile Media & Communication
The article "Love at first swipe? Explaining Tinder self-presentation and motives" by Christoph Lutz and Giulia Ranzini (VU Amsterdam) was published in Mobile Media & Communication. In their article, the authors investigate the mobile dating app Tinder. Using an online survey of 500 users, they find that most users present themselves authentically but a substantial number reveals deceptive selves. Moreover, the motivations for using Tinder differ between men and women and are influenced by psychological characteristics such as self-esteem and narcissism. The article is now available online on the journal site.
Sut I Wong, Miha Škerlavaj, and Matej Černe
New Paper on Job-Crafting in Human Resource Management
Professor Wong together with Professor Skerlavaj and Assistant Professor Cerne published a study on job crating in Human Resource Management. The paper is entitled, 'Build Coalitions to Fit: Autonomy Expectations, Competence Mobilization, and Job Crafting'. Job crafting offers several beneficial organizational outcomes, yet little is known about what makes employees engage in it. In particular, the role of leaders in influencing their subordinates to engage in job crafting has been insufficiently studied. Drawing on role theory, we suggest that the congruence of leader–subordinate autonomy expectations nurtures subordinates’ experiences of having their competences adequately utilized in their jobs. This experience, which involves the competence mobilization of their work roles, subsequently fosters subordinates’ engagement in job crafting behavior. A two-stage field study of 145 leader–subordinate dyads using cross-level polynomial regression and response surface analysis supported the (in)congruence hypotheses. The results also demonstrated that subordinates’ perceived competence mobilization mediates the relationship between autonomy expectation (in)congruence and job crafting. In addition, leader coalition as a moderator strengthens the effect of perceived competence mobilization as a psychological condition for job crafting.
Christian Fieseler and Eliane Bucher
Paper on Digital Labor published in New Media and Society
In their article “The flow of digital labor”, recently published in New Media and Society, Christian Fieseler and Eliane Bucher discuss flow experiences as a driver for engaging in digital microwork, while also looking at factors which may lead to improved digital work experiences in general. Even with the rise of the robots, there are (still) a multitude of tasks which cannot be completed by computers. Digital microwork platforms such as Amazon Mechanical Turk or Taskrabbit specialize in such human micro-tasks like tagging images, transcribing snippets of text or correctly categorizing the sentiment expressed in a tweet. They broker micro work-packages to an anonymous digital workforce for micro-compensations. Microworkers typically work in their leisure time and they often work for a relatively small overall hourly wage. Based on a survey of 701 workers on amazon mechanical turk, the authors show that intrinsic motivation, complete absorption into the task-stream at hand as well as enjoyment of working on tasks which are sometimes challenging, yet not impossible to solve, contribute to flow-like states of immersion during digital microwork. Furthermore, the authors show that reaching flow while in digital microwork depends on certain work characteristics, such the perceived degree of worker autonomy, the extent to which a worker’s skills are utilized or challenged, and the significance of feedback received for a job well done. The results both highlight the importance of flow-like immersion in explaining why individuals engage in digital labor projects and point to avenues that may lead to the design of optimal digital work experiences.
Eliane Bucher, Christian Fieseler and Christoph Lutz
Paper on the Sharing Economy published in Computers in Human Behavior
Article on the Sharing Economy published in Computers in Human Behavior.
The article "What's mine is yours (for a nominal fee) – Exploring the spectrum of utilitarian to altruistic motives for Internet-mediated sharing" by Eliane Bucher, Christian Fieseler and Christoph Lutz has been accepted in Computers in Human Behavior and is now available online. In their article, the authors discuss that social-hedonic motives are the strongest predictor of Internet-mediated sharing, such as on platforms as Airbnb, and that monetary incentives may be necessary but not sufficient for online sharing. The paper can be accessed here.
Sut I Wong and Anders Dysvik
New Paper on Mastery Avoidance in International Journal of Human Resource Management
Professor Wong together with Professor Dysvik published a study at International Journal of Human Resource Management on how individuals with various organizational tenure may engage in mastery-avoidance goals. The paper is titled, 'Organizational tenure and mastery-avoidance goals: The moderating role of psychological empowerment'. Mastery-avoidance (MAv) goals are recognized to be detrimental as they arouse counterproductive work-related behaviours. In the current literature, MAv goals are assumed to be more predominant among newcomers and longer tenured employees. The alleged relationship provides important implications but yet has received scant empirical attention. In response, this study examines the proposed U-shaped curvilinear relationship between organizational tenure and MAv goal orientation. In addition, the potential moderating role of psychological empowerment on this curvilinear relationship is investigated. Based on data from 655 certified accountants, the results support the existence of the hypothesized curvilinear relationship. Also, it revealed that for employees who experience higher levels of psychological empowerment, the U-shaped relationship between organizational tenure and MAv goal orientation becomes flattened.
Steffen Giessner, Kate Horton, and Sut I Wong
New Paper on Organizational Mergers published in Social Issues and Policy Review
Steffen Giessner, Kate E. Horton and Sut I Wong published a review article at Social Issue and Policy Review on identity management during organizational mergers & acquisitions (M&As). The paper is titled, 'Identity management during organizational mergers: Empirical insights and policy advices'. Mergers and acquisitions (M&As) are increasingly undertaken in both the private and public sector, for sustaining competitiveness within challenging economic climates, such as Facebook acquired instragram, Amazon is currently planning to acquire FedEx and UPS. Yet, empirical evidence indicates that the majority of M&A activities can be considered as financial failures. In addition, many has pointed to the human and social costs of M&As to be a major contributor. They have conducted a review of the M&A literature and suggested four key areas to consider for M&A adjustment, including identity process, intergroup structure and processes, justice and fairness, and leadership.
Four papers accepted for the AOM 2016 conference
We are happy to present four papers at this year's Academy of Management conference at Los Angeles: // Hoffmann, C., Lutz, C., & Meckel, C. (2016). Academic Social Capital? Relating Centrality on Research-Gate to Established Impact Measures. Paper to be presented at the 2016 AOM Annual Meeting, Anaheim, 5-9 August. // Kost, D., Wong, S. I, & Fieseler, C. (2016). Finding meaning in a hopeless place: The construction of meaning in digital microwork. Paper Accepted for presentation at Annual Meeting of Academy of Management, Anaheim, California, USA, August 2016. // Wu, J., Giessner, S. R., & Wong, S. I. (2016). When will followers voice up? Interplay between leader-member exchange (dis)similarity and leader group prototypicality. Paper accepted for presentation at Annual Meeting of Academy of Management, Anaheim, California, USA, August 2016. // Kost, D. (2016). Transactive Memory systems in virtual teams: The effect of integration and differentiation on performance. Paper accepted for presentation at Annual Meeting of Academy of Management, Anaheim, California, USA, August 2016. More information about the AOM conference is available here: http://aom.org/annualmeeting/theme/
Paper on Participation Divides published in Social Media + Society
A new paper by Christoph Lutz, entitled “A Social Milieu Approach to the Online Participation Divides in Germany,” has been published in the open access journal Social Media + Society. The article is freely available online on the journal homepage under the following link. It deals with online participation in Germany: active uses of the Internet, where users create and share their own content, for example via blogs, video platforms or on social media. By analyzing focus groups and online communities, this qualitative study identifies different online participation patterns in seven social milieus. Age and proactive attitudes partly account for the milieu differences, with the role of socio-economic status being more complex than assumed in previous research.
Five Papers accepted at the ICA2016 conference
We will be present with five papers at this year's conference of the International Communication Association in Fukuoka, Japan: // Lutz, C., & Tamò, A. (2016). Communicating with Robots: ANTalyzing the Interaction between Digital Interlocutors and Humans. Paper to be presented at the 2016 ICA Post-Conference “Communicating with Machines: The Rising Power of Digital Interlocutors in Our Lives”, Fukuoka, 14 June 2016. // Blank, G., & Lutz, C. (2016). Benefits and Harms from Internet Use – A Differentiated Analysis in the UK. Paper to be presented at the 2016 ICA Annual Conference, Fukuoka, 9-13 June 2016. // Fieseler, C., Bucher, E., & Lutz, C. (2016). Why Do We Share? Exploring Monetary, Moral and Social-Hedonic Motives for Internet-Mediated Sharing. Paper to be presented at the 2016 ICA Annual Conference, Fukuoka, 9-13 June 2016. // Hoffmann, C. P., Lutz, C., & Poëll, R. (2016). Blasting and Posturing: A Gender Divide in Young Facebook Users’ Online Political Participation. Paper to be presented at the 2016 ICA Annual Conference, Fukuoka, 9-13 June 2016. // Ranzini, G., Lutz, C., & Gouderjaan, M. (2016). Swipe Right: An Exploration of Self-Presentation and Impression Management on Tinder. Paper to be presented at the 2016 ICA Annual Conference, Fukuoka, 9-13 June 2016. You can find more information on this year's ICA conference here: http://www.icahdq.org/conf/
Sabina Bogilović, Miha Škerlavaj and Sut I Wong
New Book Chapter on Cultural Intelligence
Sabina Bogilović, Miha Škerlavaj and Sut I Wong published a book chapter on idea implementation and cultural intelligence. The chapter, titled 'Idea implementation and cultural intelligence', was published in 'Capitalizing on Creativity at Work: Fostering the Implementation of Creative Ideas in Organizations', an edited volume by Škerlavaj et al. In this book chapter, the authors explore the understudied process of how cultural intelligence can enhance idea implementation at the individual level in a culturally diverse work environment. By conducting experimental studies, the authors suggest that employees with high cultural intelligence tend to be more valuable than their colleagues with low cultural intelligence when individuals implement creative ideas in a culturally diverse work environment. The authors also provide some practical examples of how individuals can increase their cultural intelligence in order to better implement creative ideas in a culturally diverse environment.