Employee Profile

Alexander Buhmann

Associate Professor - Department of Communication and Culture


Dr. Alexander Buhmann is associate professor of communication and director of The Nordic Alliance for Communication & Management (#NORA), an international and cross-disciplinary research group focusing on communication as a strategic driver of sustainable organizational performance. Alexander received his PhD from the University of Fribourg (Switzerland), and held teaching and research fellowships at, among others, the University of Southern California, USC Annenberg School of Communication and Journalism’s Center on Public Diplomacy, Stanford University, Santa Clara University, and Mid Sweden University.

Alexander’s research is situated at the intersection of communication, digital technology, and management. In his current work, he focuses on digitalization and automation in communication and their implications for management as well as for public and corporate governance. This entails questions, e.g., of how new technologies (such as artificial intelligence, social media or virtual reality) affect interactions between organizations and their stakeholders, and how datafication and ‘algorithmization’ in communication impede or enable the capacity for responsible and democratic governance. Alexander’s research has been published in academic journals, such as the Journal of Business Ethics, Business Ethics Quarterly, New Media & Society, Scientometrics, Technology in Society, International Communication Gazette, The Information Society, The European Journal of Communication Research, The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, and Public Relations Review.

Alexander serves on the core research team of the European Communication Monitor (ECM – the largest transnational study on strategic communication worldwide), is a member of the academic advisory board of the International Association for the Measurement and Evaluation of Communication (AMEC), and a member of the expert panel on artificial intelligence at the Royal Chartered Institute of Public Relations (CIPR). Since 2020 Alexander also serves as the chair of the annual Paper Development Workshop, held during the congress of the European Public Relations Education and Research Association (EUPRERA).

In teaching, Alexander is responsible for courses in "Communication and Digitalization", "Reputation and Corporate Communication", as well as “Strategic Communication Management”, and is co-program responsible for the Executive Master of Management in PR and Strategic Communication.


Bucher, Eliane; Fieseler, Christian, Lutz, Christoph & Buhmann, Alexander (2024)

Professionals, purpose-seekers, and passers-through: How microworkers reconcile alienation and platform commitment through identity work

New Media & Society, 26(1), s. 190- 215. Doi: 10.1177/14614448211056863 - Full text in research archive

Digital microwork consists of remote and highly decontextualized labor that is increasingly governed by algorithms. The anonymity and granularity of such work is likely to cause alienation among workers. To date we know little about how workers reconcile such potential feelings of alienation with their simultaneous commitment to the platform. Based on a longitudinal survey of 460 workers on a large microworking platform and a combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses, we show that (1) alienation is present in digital microwork. However, our study also finds that (2) workers’ commitment to the platform over time may alter their subjective perceptions of alienation. Drawing from qualitative statements, we show (3) how workers perform identity work that might help reconcile feelings of alienation with simultaneous platform commitment. Our findings contribute to solving the paradox of worker commitment to precarious platform labor, which is an issue frequently raised in the digital labor literature.

Buhmann, Alexander (2024)

Social Theory and Public Relations Research


Volk, Sophia Charlotte & Buhmann, Alexander (2023)

Digital corporate communication and measurement and evaluation

Luoma-aho, Vilma & Badham, Mark (red.). Handbook on Digital Corporate Communication

Digital technologies offer significant advances for the measurement and evaluation (M&E) of corporate communication, as they allow for real time and automated data collection and anal-ysis and bring new predictive capabilities. This, in turn, also brings new challenges and con-cerns, e.g., with data-based profiling and microtargeting. This chapter examines how digitali-sation changes M&E and what remains the same, differentiating between two levels: (1) M&E at the activities level (of communication products, campaigns or programs), and (2) M&E at the administrative level (of managing the communication function, departments, and professionals). We critically reflect on societal, ethical, legal, organisational, and individual challenges related to the use of digital approaches to the M&E. The implementation of digital technologies for M&E in practice is illustrated by a case study of the UNICEF measurement framework. We conclude with directions for research and implications for the future of M&E practice.

Buhmann, Alexander & Gregory, Anne (2023)

Digital corporate communication and artificial Intelligence and future roles

Luoma-aho, Vilma & Badham, Mark (red.). Handbook on Digital Corporate Communication

This chapter discusses the use in practice and implications of AI for professional roles and responsibilities in corporate communication. It defines AI and other relevant terms, gives a brief overview of how it is currently being used and outlines some of the newer applications such as Intelligent User Interfaces. It goes on to explore what current and future developments mean for the structure of the profession, including how the role will be re-shaped as many of the operational tasks in corporate communication are automated and ‘infused’ with AI. It considers how the role can become more strategic as it moves away from the operational, focussing on ethical concerns as a route to an enhanced governance role. The chapter envisages an active ethical guardian role for corporate communicators at an organisational level as well as in the function, serving as the conscience of the wider organisation. It concludes by providing a brief case study on Vodafone, showcasing a progressive positioning AI policies.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2023)

Deep Learning Meets Deep Democracy: Deliberative Governance and Responsible Innovation in Artificial Intelligence

Business Ethics Quarterly, 33(1) Doi: 10.1017/beq.2021.42 - Full text in research archive

Responsible innovation in artificial intelligence (AI) calls for public deliberation: well-informed “deep democratic” debate that involves actors from the public, private, and civil society sectors in joint efforts to critically address the goals and means of AI. Adopting such an approach constitutes a challenge, however, due to the opacity of AI and strong knowledge boundaries between experts and citizens. This undermines trust in AI and undercuts key conditions for deliberation. We approach this challenge as a problem of situating the knowledge of actors from the AI industry within a deliberative system. We develop a new framework of responsibilities for AI innovation as well as a deliberative governance approach for enacting these responsibilities. In elucidating this approach, we show how actors from the AI industry can most effectively engage with experts and nonexperts in different social venues to facilitate well-informed judgments on opaque AI systems and thus effectuate their democratic governance.

Buhmann, Alexander & Volk, Sophia Charlotte (2022)

Measurement and Evaluation: Framework, Methods, and Critique

Falkheimer, Jesper & Heide, Mats (red.). Research Handbook on Strategic Communication

Measurement and evaluation (M&E) is the cornerstone of strategic communication: Whether and how the purposeful use of communication contributes to realizing the mission, strategy or particular objectives of an organization, builds on and is assessed through M&E. The relevance of the M&E debate has significantly increased over the course of recent decades as budgets in various areas of strategic communication have continued to grow. This has increased the pressure to develop evidence-based strategy and tactics and provide ‘hard proof’ of how communication contributes to organisational goals. This chapter reviews the state of the debate by introducing foundational M&E concepts as well as an integrated framework for M&E in strategic communication. Based on this framework, this chapter discusses the state of the art in M&E methods and tools, and develops critical perspectives and future directions for research and practice in this important strategic communication domain.

Brockhaus, Jana; Buhmann, Alexander & Zerfass, Ansgar (2022)

Digitalization in corporate communications: understanding the emergence and consequences of CommTech and digital infrastructure

Corporate Communications. An International Journal Doi: 10.1108/CCIJ-03-2022-0035 - Full text in research archive

Purpose This article studies the digitalization of corporate communications and the emergence of communication technology (CommTech). The authors show communicators' expectations regarding digitalization, gauge the current level of digitalization across communication departments and agencies and examine the effectiveness of strategic approaches to manage digitalization. Design/methodology/approach The authors conceptualize the phenomenon of CommTech and propose a framework for studying CommTech's emergence and consequences by combining (1) recent theorizing on digitalization in corporate communications, (2) the concept of digital maturity from information systems research and (3) a socio-technical approach to analyze the development of work systems. The authors apply this framework in a quantitative study (n = 2,664) among communication practitioners from 46 countries. Findings While digitalization of both communication activities and the underlying support infrastructure is seen as critically important among communicators, a large fraction of communication departments and agencies are still assessed as digitally immature. Further, data reveal the relevance of different (technology, tasks, structure and people) dimensions of digitalization strategies and the influence of such strategies on the digital maturity of communications. Practical implications The framework and empirical instruments developed in this study help practitioners to uncover and evaluate the level of digital maturity of communication departments and agencies. This allows to identify current challenges and future opportunities for improvement. Originality/value The authors propose a concise definition for the much-debated concept of CommTech and develop a new theoretical framework for understanding CommTech's emergence and consequences in the profession. This empirical work constitutes the first large-scale study on the digital maturity of communication departments and agencies.

Buhmann, Alexander & White, Candace (2022)

Artificial Intelligence in Public Relations: Role and Implications

Lipschultz, Jeremy; Freberg, Karen & Luttrell, Regina (red.). The Emerald Handbook of Computer-Mediated Communication and Social Media

Buhmann, Alexander (2022)

Unpacking Joint Attributions of Cities and Nation States as Actors in Global Affairs

The Hague Journal of Diplomacy, 17(1), s. 109- 122. Doi: 10.1163/1871191X-bja10092 - Full text in research archive

Public diplomacy efforts of nation states and cities within these states inevitably develop alongside another, giving rise to joint attributions regarding these entities as actors in global affairs, though also potentially intensifying perceptions of their independent and even contradictory roles in international diplomacy. Variations in attributions of cities and states as more or less conjoint actors can be expected to affect both the visibility of key actors and the formation of attitudes and behaviours towards these actors in international affairs. In this essay I explore how and in what dimensions such variations can be expected to occur, applying recent thinking on the constitution of social actors to this emerging debate in public and city diplomacy scholarship and proposing a conceptual framework that distinguishes joint ‘selfhood’ and ‘actorhood’ as key dimensions of joint city/state attributions. The essay includes a discussion of the implications of this conceptualisation for public and city diplomacy.

Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna; Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2022)

On track to biopower? Toward a conceptual framework for user compliance in digital self-tracking

The Information Society, 83(1) Doi: 10.1080/01972243.2021.2014610

Digital self-tracking technologies, such as mobile applications and wearables have become commonplace, mediating users’ fitness and health management efforts by providing performance recommendations. While digital self-tracking technologies have been welcomed by some as useful tools in users’ pursuit of healthier and happier lives, they have also drawn criticisms, especially regarding body surveillance and control stemming from their embedded performance standards. In this article, we present our study of the experiences of users who regularly but casually engage with digital self-tracking technologies in order to identify factors that affect compliance with performance standards. Based on these data we propose a conceptual framework that brings together domain involvement, domain expertise, data literacy, and the tendency to anthropomorphize technology with performance standards and discuss possible relationships between these factors.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2021)

Tackling the Grand Challenge of Algorithmic Opacity Through Principled Robust Action

Morals + Machines, 1(1), s. 74- 85. Doi: 10.5771/2747-5174-2021-1-74 - Full text in research archive

Organizations increasingly delegate agency to artificial intelligence. However, such systems can yield unintended negative effects as they may produce biases against users or reinforce social injustices. What pronounces them as a unique grand challenge, however, are not their potentially problematic outcomes but their fluid design. Machine learning algorithms are continuously evolving; as a result, their functioning frequently remains opaque to humans. In this article, we apply recent work ontackling grand challenges though robust action to assess the potential and obstacles of managing the challenge of algorithmic opacity. We stress that although this approach is fruitful, it can begainfully complemented by a discussion regarding the accountability and legitimacy of solutions. In our discussion, we extend the robust action approach by linking it to a set of principles that can serve to evaluate organisational approaches of tackling grand challenges with respect to their ability to foster accountable outcomes under the intricate conditions of algorithmic opacity.

Buhmann, Alexander & Schoeneborn, Dennis (2021)

Envisioning PR research without taking organizations as collective actors for granted: A rejoinder and extension to Hou

Public relations inquiry, 10(1), s. 119- 127. Doi: 10.1177/2046147X20987337 - Full text in research archive

In a recent article in Public Relations Inquiry, Jenny Hou has fittingly argued for a stronger focus on agency and actorhood in PR research. We point to two crucial aspects in which we think her arguments need to be extended, namely: (a) embracing the constitutive role of communication for organizational actorhood and agency, and (b) rethinking the role of PR in the constitution of organizational actors. We argue that such extension would allow for an important and radical twist in perspective that highlights a widely neglected question in PR research: What if the collective actorhood status of organizations is not treated as a given but rather arises from communicative attributions of such actorhood status to social entities? Finally, we develop key implications from this shift in perspective for PR scholarship, education, and practice.

Buhmann, Alexander; Maltseva, Kateryna, Fieseler, Christian & Fleck, Matthes (2021)

Muzzling social media: The adverse effects of moderating stakeholder conversations online

Technology in society, 64, s. 1- 11. Doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101490 - Full text in research archive

Many organizations struggle to meaningfully engage with their stakeholders on political, societal and environmental topics via social media. Often such discourses unravel into splintered and negative conversations, raising the question whether organizations can and should exercise some level of control and ‘steering’ in these conversations and, if so, how stakeholders would react to such ‘top down’ moderation. Existing studies lack empirical insights into the impacts of different levels of moderation in social media conversations on stakeholder attitudes. Two experimental studies were developed to test the effect of different levels of organizational moderation on stakeholder attitudes towards organizations. We show that increased levels of moderation negatively affect attitudes towards an organization, satisfaction with an organization's performance, and trust in the organization. Increased moderation also significantly undermines beliefs in the commitment of the organization to its stakeholders and control mutuality. This paper extends recent qualitative attempts to build new theory around stakeholder dialogues on social media by testing the effects of varying levels of moderation in such dialogues.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2021)

Towards a deliberative framework for responsible innovation in artificial intelligence

Technology in society, 64 Doi: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2020.101475

The rapid innovation in artificial intelligence (AI) is raising concerns regarding human autonomy, agency, fairness, and justice. While responsible stewardship of innovation calls for public engagement, inclusiveness, and informed discourse, AI seemingly challenges such informed discourse by way of its opacity (poor transparency, explainability, and accountability). We apply a deliberative approach to propose a framework for responsible innovation in AI. This framework foregrounds discourse principles geared to help offset these opacity challenges. To support better public governance, we consider the mutual roles and dependencies of organizations that develop and apply AI, as well as civil society actors, and investigative media in exploring pathways for responsible AI innovation.

Buhmann, Alexander & Sommerfeldt, Erich (2020)

Pathways for the Future of Evaluation in Public Diplomacy

Figueroa Press.

Rolke, Lothar; Buhmann, Alexander & Zerfass, Ansgar (2020)

Evaluation und Controlling der Unternehmenskommunikation

Zerfass, Ansgar; Piwinger, Manfred & Röttger, Ulrike (red.). Handbuch Unternehmenskommunikation

Kommunikationsmanager wissen heute um die Wirkung ihrer Arbeit und umihren Beitrag zur Erreichung von Unternehmenszielen. Dabei handelt es sich umLeistungen für eine gute Berichterstattung in den Medien, für die Reputation desUnternehmens und mitunter sogar für die direkte Verkaufsförderung, für dieMitarbeitermotivation genauso wie für die Gewinnung von Nachwuchskräften.Allerdings beruht dieses Wissen allzu oft auf Intuition, auf besonderen Erfahrun-gen wie im Falle von Krisen oder auf vereinzelten Erfolgsmessungen. Was häufigfehlt, ist ein institutionalisiertes Controlling der Unternehmenskommunikation,mit der die Steuerung und Evaluation der Kommunikationsprozesse systematisch

Buhmann, Alexander; Paßmann, Johannes & Fieseler, Christian (2020)

Managing Algorithmic Accountability: Balancing Reputational Concerns, Engagement Strategies, and the Potential of Rational Discourse

Journal of Business Ethics, 163(2), s. 265- 280. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-019-04226-4 - Full text in research archive

While organizations today make extensive use of complex algorithms, the notion of algorithmic accountability remains an elusive ideal due to the opacity and fluidity of algorithms. In this article, we develop a framework for managing algorithmic accountability that highlights three interrelated dimensions: reputational concerns, engagement strategies, and discourse principles. The framework clarifies (a) that accountability processes for algorithms are driven by reputational concerns about the epistemic setup, opacity, and outcomes of algorithms; (b) that the way in which organizations practically engage with emergent expectations about algorithms may be manipulative, adaptive, or moral; and (c) that when accountability relationships are heavily burdened by the opacity and fluidity of complex algorithmic systems, the emphasis of engagement should shift to a rational communication process through which a continuous and tentative assessment of the development, workings, and consequences of algorithms can be achieved over time. The degree to which such engagement is, in fact, rational can be assessed based on four discourse-ethical principles of participation, comprehension, multivocality, and responsiveness. We conclude that the framework may help organizations and their environments to jointly work toward greater accountability for complex algorithms. It may further help organizations in reputational positioning surrounding accountability issues. The discourse-ethical principles introduced in this article are meant to elevate these positioning contests to extend beyond mere adaption or compliance and help guide organizations to find moral and forward-looking solutions to accountability issues.

Probst, Carole; Buhmann, Alexander, Ingenhoff, Diana & Lepori, Benedetto (2019)

Evolution of a field: Swiss media and communication studies

Studies in Communication Sciences (SComS), 19(1), s. 7- 23. Doi: 10.24434/j.scoms.2019.01.002 - Full text in research archive

In this paper, we present the evolution of Swiss Media and Communication Studies over the last decade by summarizing the main results from a project funded by the Swiss University Conference (2008–2017). We give an overall picture of the growth in the field (in terms of student numbers, resources and activities), look at diversity in terms of topics (two clusters are identified and presented with respect to various indicators), present changes at the level of individual research units (where we find variance in terms of evolution), give insights into publication patterns (two different publication cultures are found) and describe mobility and career pathways in the field. We observe limited mobility within Switzerland, internal pathways at the level of doctoral students and post-docs, and international mobility, mainly within the same linguistic region, at the professorial level. We conclude that the field has reached a consolidation phase and achieved a rather stable situation, but faces new challenges, with digitalization and the pressure towards homogenization in publication output among the most important.

Buhmann, Alexander & Sommerfeldt, Erich (2019)

Drivers and barriers in public diplomacy evaluation: understanding attitudes, norms, and control

International Communication Gazette Doi: 10.1177/1748048519887295 - Full text in research archive

While the need for evaluation has become increasingly emphasized within the global public diplomacy community, recent research suggests the state of the practice is grim. However, the few writings that exist on evaluation practices in public diplomacy are anecdotal and focus mainly on obstacles to enacting evaluation behavior. Little is known about evaluation-related perceptions, motivations, and attitudes of public diplomacy practitioners themselves. As practitioners are under increasing pressure to deliver evaluations, understanding the perspective of practitioners and their motivations is necessary. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, this study presents the results of interviews with 25 public diplomacy practitioners in the U.S. Department of State. The results lend insight into the attitudes, norms, and behavioral controls that influence practitioners’ intentions to engage in evaluation. The article also suggests explanations as to why evaluation struggles to gain a foothold within public diplomacy, and makes proposals for improving future practice.

Ihlen, Øyvind; Anne, Gregory, Luoma-aho, Vilma & Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

Post-truth and public relations: Special section introduction

Public Relations Review Doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101844 - Full text in research archive

With spindoctoring, publicity seeking stunts and evidence of mal-practice, public relations is easily associated with the development of post-truth society. The elevation of bullshit as political coinage presents a challenge for the rational public debate which the public relations profession at large should have an interest in maintaining. In this introduction, we briefly highlight some of these challenges for public relations. We point to how papers in the special section tie into these challenges, by for instance, helping to understand the construction of truth, how to construct a defense for legitimate public relations and engage with publics, as well as to build a professional practice through developing and measuring communication.

Buhmann, Alexander; Ihlen, Øyvind & Aaen-Stockdale, Craig (2019)

Connecting the dots: A bibliometric review of Habermasian theory in public relations research

Journal of Communication Management, 23(4), s. 444- 467. Doi: 10.1108/JCOM-12-2018-0127 - Full text in research archive

Purpose: Meta reviews are central for mapping the state of the field, consolidating the heterogeneous public relations body of knowledge, and pointing to new potential research directions. Habermas is one of the most influential contemporary social theorists and his work has repeatedly been used in public relations scholarship. While some have maintained that his work has been most influential in the development of public relations theory, this stream of research has never been reviewed empirically. Design/methodology/approach: In this paper, we present a bibliometric literature review of 263 research articles published between 1980 and 2016. A network analysis of these publications based on the technique of bibliographic coupling was used to identify common forms of application, research themes, as well as patterns of impact. Findings: Results show that the use of Habermas has grown significantly, specifically in the recent decade. At the same time, researchers have a narrow focus specifically on earlier developments in the theory. Finally, we discover three main topical research clusters that have been influenced by the theory: public relations and the public sphere, dialogic stakeholder relationships, as well as public relations and communication ethics. Originality/value: Our findings map out an important stream of scholarship in the field by showing were public relations scholars have been and were the research community has not ventured yet. Based on the results of this analysis we propose directions for research to advance future theory development in public relations using Habermas’ work.

Buhmann, Alexander; Macnamara, Jim & Zerfass, Ansgar (2019)

Reviewing the ‘march to standards’ in public relations: a comparative analysis of four seminal measurement and evaluation initiatives

Public Relations Review Doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2019.101825 - Full text in research archive

To many, development and adoption of professional standards for measurement and evaluation (M&E) is one of the most promising approaches for advancing public relations practice. In recent years, there has been a surge in efforts to develop standards for M&E in different parts of the world. Prominent examples of this include standard terminologies, metrics, principles for best practice in the field, and evaluation frameworks. Regardless of their alleged importance, however, the acceptance and application of such M&E standards in the practice varies significantly. To better understand the process by which standards in this field are developed and adopted, this article draws on recent concepts from organization studies (cf. Slager, Gond, & Moon, 2012) to analyze the trajectories of four seminal standards attempts: The Barcelona Principles and the AMEC Integrated Evaluation Framework on an international level, the DPRG/ICV Framework used in German-speaking countries, and the GCS Framework in the United Kingdom. The article reveals, by way of an interpretive qualitative approach, the various strategies undertaken to a) develop common sets of terms and rules, b) engage relevant actors in the design, promotion, and implementation of proposed standards, and c) to reinforcing standards symbolically.

Sommerfeldt, Erich & Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

The status quo of evaluation in public diplomacy: insights from the US State Department

Journal of Communication Management Doi: 10.1108/JCOM-12-2018-0137 - Full text in research archive

Purpose In recent years, expectations for demonstrating the impact of public diplomacy programs have dramatically increased. Despite increased calls for enhanced monitoring and evaluation, what texts exist on the subject suggest the state of practice is grim. However, while the current debate is based mostly on practice reports, conceptual work from academics or anecdotal evidence, we are missing empirical insights on current views of monitoring and evaluation from practitioners. Such a practice-level perspective is central for better understanding factors that may actually drive or hamper performance evaluation in day-to-day public diplomacy work. The purpose of this paper is to update knowledge on the state of evaluation practice within public diplomacy from the perspectives of practitioners themselves. Design/methodology/approach This study assesses the state of evaluation in public diplomacy through qualitative interviews with public diplomacy officers working for the US Department of State – a method heretofore unused in studies of the topic. In total, 25 in-depth interviews were conducted with officers in Washington, DC and at posts around the world. Findings The interviews suggest that practitioners see evaluation as underfunded despite increased demands for accountability. Further, the results show a previously not discussed tension between diplomacy practitioners in Washington, DC and those in the field. Practitioners are also unclear about the goals of public diplomacy, which has implications for the enactment of targeted evaluations. Originality/value The research uncovers the perceptions of evaluation from the voices of those who must practice it, and elaborates on the common obstacles in the enactment of public diplomacy, the influence of multiple actors and stakeholders on evaluation practice, as well as the perceived goals of public diplomacy programming. No empirical research has considered the state of evaluation practice. Moreover, the study uses qualitative interview data from public diplomacy officers themselves, an under-used method in public diplomacy research. The findings provide insights that contribute to future public diplomacy strategy and performance management.

Ingenhoff, Diana & Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

Public Diplomacy: Messung, Entstehung und Gestaltung von Länderimages

Herbert von Halem Verlag.

Public Diplomacy ist ein international schnell wachsendes Forschungs- und Praxisfeld. Dabei geht es v.a. um sämtliche Aktivitäten eines Landes zum Aufbau und zur Pflege eines Beziehungsnetzes zu heutigen und zukünftigen Entscheidern, sowie zur Beeinflussung der Einstellung der eigenen und ausländischen (auch digitalen) Öffentlichkeiten zur Landespolitik und seinen verschiedenen Wirkungsbereichen. Der Aufbau und die Pflege des Landesimages nimmt hier eine entscheidende Rolle ein. Insbesondere in der Kommunikationswissenschaft – und darin in der Public-Relations-Forschung – sind in den vergangenen Jahren wesentliche Grundlagen zur Entstehung und Gestaltung von Länderimages durch die Public Diplomacy erarbeitet worden. Bisher liegt aber zu diesem jungen und dynamischen Feld noch kein deutschsprachiges Buch vor. Diese Lücke möchten die Autoren schließen. Im vorliegenden Band führen sie in den aktuellen Forschungs- und Wissensstand zu diesem Themengebiet ein und reflektieren grundlegende Fragen der Messung, Entstehung und Gestaltung von Länderimages. Dabei gibt das Buch antworten auf die folgenden fünf Leitfragen: · Welche Aspekte/Dimensionen eines Landes sind wichtig für sein Image? · Wie entsteht ein Landesimage? · Welches sind die für die Imagebildung wirksamen Kanäle? · Welche Handlungsrelevanz und Wirksamkeit hat das Landesimage? · Wie lässt sich die Wirksamkeit von Public Diplomacy und Landeskommunikation messen und evaluieren? Das vorliegende Buch führt verständlich und reflektiert in die facettenreiche Literatur zu Länderimages und Public Diplomacy ein und bietet damit neue Anknüpfungspunkte für Forschung und Praxis.

Buhmann, Alexander & Likely, Fraser (2018)

Evaluation and measurement in strategic communication

Heath, Robert L. & Johansen, Winni (red.). The International Encyclopedia of Strategic Communication

White, Candace; Kiousis, Spiro, Buhmann, Alexander & Ingenhoff, Diana (2018)

Epilogue: Bridging disciplinary perspectives about country image, reputation, brand and identity

Ingenhoff, Diana; White, Candace, Buhmann, Alexander & Kiousis, Spiro (red.). Bridging disciplinary perspectives on the formation and effects of country image, reputation, brand, and identity

Ingenhoff, Diana; Zhang, Tiando, Buhmann, Alexander, White, Candace & Kiousis, Spiro (2018)

Analyzing Value Drivers and Effects of 4D-Country Images on Stakeholders’ Behavior Across Three Different Cultures

Ingenhoff, Diana; White, Candace, Buhmann, Alexander & Kiousis, Spiro (red.). Bridging disciplinary perspectives on the formation and effects of country image, reputation, brand, and identity

Ingenhoff, Diana; White, Candace, Buhmann, Alexander & Kiousis, Spiro (2018)

Bridging disciplinary perspectives on the formation and effects of country image, reputation, brand, and identity


Brønn, Peggy Simcic & Buhmann, Alexander (2018)

Building and Managing Reputation: Current Debates and Future Directions

Sasson, Amir (red.). At the Forefront, Looking Ahead: Research-Based Answers to Contemporary Uncertainties of Management

Buhmann, Alexander & Brønn, Peggy Simcic (2018)

Applying Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Practitioners’ Intentions to Measure and Evaluate Communication Outcomes

Corporate Communications. An International Journal, 23(3), s. 377- 391. Doi: 10.1108/CCIJ-11-2017-0107

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to understand factors that may stimulate or inhibit communication practitioners when it comes to measurement and evaluation (M&E) of communication initiatives at the outcome level (i.e. impact on stakeholder’s attitudes and behavior or business results). Design/methodology/approach- Based on Ajzen’s (1985) theory of planned behavior (TPB), the authors develop and test a new model to analyze antecedents to M&E behavior (attitude, perceived norms, and behavioral control) and assess how they impact practitioners’ intentions to perform outcome M&E. The model is tested in a standardized online survey (n=371). Findings - Findings show that the TPB model explains a large amount of the variance in practitioners’ intentions to engage in M&E at the outcome level. The model demonstrates that attitude toward outcome M&E and perceived behavioral control, particularly lack of skills, are the two strongest drivers influencing practitioners’ intentions to measure and evaluate outcomes of their communication initiatives. Perceived norms to perform outcome M&E has only a very weak effect on intentions. Research limitations/implications - The findings highlight the potential of education when it comes to developing M&E capabilities in the practice. They also suggest that the role of normative pressure to perform outcome M&E needs to be better understood in terms of the dynamics of standardization specifically regarding design, implementation, and monitoring of M&E standards. Originality/value - The study is the first to go beyond the common descriptive focus in studying M&E practices and is the first application of the TPB to understand the factors that drive communication practitioners’ intentions to perform M&E.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Buhmann, Alexander, White, Candace, Zhang, Tiando & Kiousis, Spiro (2018)

Reputation Spillover: Corporate Crises’ Effects on Country Reputation

Journal of Communication Management, 22(1), s. 96- 112. Doi: 10.1108/JCOM-08-2017-0081

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine how varying degrees of media-constructed associations between organizations and their home countries affect audience perceptions of such associations and, subsequently, how recipients attribute crisis responsibility and reputational damage to the home country. Additionally, the paper investigates if pre-crisis country image can buffer negative effects of the crisis for the country. Design/methodology/approach The authors hypothesize that the strength of actor associations in media reports about crises affects recipients’ cognitive processes of crisis responsibility attribution and, thus, the “direction” of reputational damage (corporation vs country). Empirically, the authors analyze the effects of different levels of actor association in crisis reports (strong actor association vs weak actor association) regarding a Chinese corporation in a one-factorial (between-subjects) experimental design; and the intervening effect of China’s country image prior to the crisis. Participants for the study lived in Switzerland and the USA. Findings The effect of different actor associations presented in the media on perceived association between a corporation and its home country is confirmed. Furthermore, these varying perceptions lead to significantly different tendencies in people’s ascriptions of crisis responsibility (corporation vs country), and different degrees of reputational fallout for the home countries. Finally, the data did not confirm a moderating effect of pre-crisis country image on the reputational damage caused by the crisis. Research limitations/implications The study contributes to the understanding of key factors in the formation of crisis attributions as well as insights for the study of country image and public diplomacy. Practical implications It provides a new approach for corporate communication and public diplomacy to analyze the complex interdependencies between countries and internationally visible and globally known corporations, which potentially affect the country’s perception abroad. Social implications Particularly for smaller countries that cannot rely on political and economic power to defend national interests in a global context, their “soft power” in terms of reputation and country image can play a central role in their political, economic, and cultural success. Originality/value The paper applies a new conceptual framework and methodology to analyze how both mediated and cognitive associations between different actors influence attribution of responsibility in crises, and how these associations ultimately bear on reputation spillover for the different actors.

Buhmann, Alexander; Likely, Fraser & Geddes, David (2018)

Communication Evaluation and Measurement: Connecting Research to Practice

Journal of Communication Management, 22(1), s. 113- 119. Doi: 10.1108/JCOM-12-2017-0141

Purpose The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the current state of communication evaluation and measurement (E&M) as a vital field connecting academics and practitioners in communication management. Design/methodology/approach The authors track recent developments in the field, address the ongoing struggle toward E&M standards, and propose six agenda points for the future E&M debate. Findings While the authors see an engaged, international interest community making considerable headway in important E&M issues, the conclusion is that several areas require further work: dynamics of standardization; going beyond the effectiveness-based view; internal services evaluation; addressing intervening variables; closer ties to related fields; and dissemination into the wider practice. Originality/value The paper gives a pointed reflection of the state of the field and also provides a comprehensive list of current resources for those who aim to further the E&M debate.

Buhmann, Alexander & Ingenhoff, Diana (2017)

Zur Wahrnehmung von Einheit und Handlungsvermögen kollektiver Entitäten im Kommunikationsmanagement: Vorschlag eines ‘Entity-Agent Framework’

Wehmeier, Stefan & Schoeneborn, Dennis (red.). Strategische Kommunikation im Spannungsfeld zwischen Intention und Emergenz

Ingenhoff, Diana & Buhmann, Alexander (2017)

The entity-agent-framework as a starting point for international public relations and public diplomacy research

Somerville, Ian; Hargie, Owen, Taylor, Maureen & Toledano, Margalit (red.). International Public Relations: Perspectives from deeply divided societies

Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

The constitution and effects of country images: Theory and measurement of a central target construct in international public relations and public diplomacy

Studies in Communication Sciences (SComS), 16(2), s. 182- 198. Doi: 10.1016/j.scoms.2016.10.002

The article introduces a model for analyzing the constitution and effects of country images. The model combines well-established concepts from national identity theory and attitude theory with a model from reputation management. The model is operationalized and tested in two surveys. Results show how different cognitive and affective dimensions of the country image affect each other and how they ultimately bear on the facilitation of behavioral intentions. Lines for future inquiry in country image research are suggested.

Lepori, Benedetto; Michael, Wise, Ingenhoff, Diana & Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

The dynamics of university units as a multi‐level process. Credibility cycles and resource dependencies

Scientometrics, 109(3), s. 2279- 2301. Doi: 10.1007/s11192-016-2080-5

This paper presents an analysis of resource acquisition and profile development of institutional units within universities. We conceptualize resource acquisition as a two-level nested process, where units compete for external resources based on their credibility, but at the same time are granted faculty positions from the larger units (department) to which they belong. Our model implies that the growth of university units is constrained by the decisions of their parent department on the allocation of professorial positions, which represent the critical resource for most units’ activities. In our field of study this allocation is largely based on educational activities, and therefore, units with high scientific credibility are not necessarily able to grow, despite an increasing reliance on external funds. Our paper therefore sheds light on the implications that the dual funding system of European universities has for the development of units, while taking into account the interaction between institutional funding and third-party funding.

Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

Measuring Country Image: Theory, Method, and Effects


Alexander Buhmann develops a new model for measuring the constitution and effects of country images by combining well-established concepts from national identity theory and attitude theory with a recent model from reputation management. The model is operationalized and tested in two surveys. Results show how different cognitive and affective dimensions of the country image affect each other and ultimately lead to the facilitation of behavioral intentions. The book introduces a theory-grounded approach to clarify the dimensionality of the country image. It is the first to operationalize and test the dimensions of the country image by combining formative and reflective measures in a mixed-specified model.

Ingenhoff, Diana & Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

Advancing PR measurement and evaluation: Demonstrating the properties and assessment of variance-based structural equation models using an example study on corporate reputation

Public Relations Review, 42(3), s. 418- 431. Doi: 10.1016/j.pubrev.2015.11.010

This paper aims to add to the growing discourse on methods in public relations research by showing how variance-based structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) can be used to analyze effects between multiple intangible target constructs in PR. We introduce the properties of the method, compare it to conventional covariance-based SEM, and demonstrate how PLS-SEM can be applied to public relations evaluation using an example study on organizational reputation and its effects on trust, and stakeholder behavior (n = 1892). This paper offers a consequent methodological discussion of PLS-SEM and provides a valuable resource for public relations research aiming to apply the variance-based approach.

Buhmann, Alexander; Ingenhoff, Diana & Lepori, Benedetto (2015)

Dimensions of diversity: mapping the field of media and communication studies by combining cognitive and material dimensions.

Communications, 40(3), s. 267- 293. Doi: 10.1515/commun-2015-0010

In this study we empirically map the field of media and communication studies (MCS) by focusing on relationships between cognitive dimensions (such as research topics and approaches) on the one hand and material dimensions (such as funding and institutionalization) on the other. Our analysis, which focuses on the field of MCS in Switzerland, identifies two clusters of research institutions representing distinct strands of research in the field. Results show how these two strands differ in terms of their resource base, institutional positioning and recognition, teaching and transfer activities, as well as activities of scientific production. Similarities and differences in these dimensions serve to explain the general evolution of the field.

Buhmann, Alexander; Hellmueller, Lea & Bosshart, Louis (2015)

Popular culture and communication practice

Communication Research Trends, 34(3), s. 2- 25.

Buhmann, Alexander & Ingenhoff, Diana (2015)

Advancing the country image construct from a public relations perspective: from model to measurement

Journal of Communication Management, 19(1), s. 62- 80. Doi: 10.1108/JCOM-11-2013-0083

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop and test a new model for the measurement of the constitution and effects of the country image as a central target construct in international public relations. Design/methodology/approach – The authors combine concepts from reputation management (Eisenegger and Imhof, 2008; Ingenhoff and Sommer, 2007), national identity theory (Smith, 1987), and attitude theory (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980) to derive a four-dimensional model, conceptualizing country images as stakeholder attitudes toward a nation and its state, comprising specific beliefs and general feelings in a functional, normative, aesthetic, and emotional dimension. Furthermore, the authors develop a path model to analyze the country image’s effect on stakeholder behavior. This model is operationalized and tested in a survey regarding the country image of the USA and its effects on travel behavior. Findings – Results show how functional, normative and aesthetic image dimensions vary in affecting the formation of the affective image component. It is also demonstrated how the affective image di-mension acts as a mediator in the image’s effect on stakeholder behavior. Practical implications – For international public relations and public diplomacy practice the developed model supplies a new approach for country image analyses which will serve and improve the development and evaluation of cross-national communication strategies. Originality/value – The paper introduces a new theory-grounded approach to clarify the dimensionality of the country image construct. It is the first to operationalize cognitive and affective dimensions of the country image by combining formative and reflective indicators in a mixed specified construct.

Buhmann, Alexander & Ingenhoff, Diana (2015)

The 4D Model of the country image: An integrative approach from the perspective of communication management

International Communication Gazette, 77(1), s. 102- 124. Doi: 10.1177/1748048514556986

This conceptual article proposes a new integrative model of the country image by drawing on advances from the fields of business studies, social psychology, political science, and communication science. To interrelate different approaches, a communication management perspective is applied, providing a basic terminological framework systemizing the central constructs of country image, country reputation, country brand, and country identity. On this basis the authors develop the ‘4D Model' of the country image by integrating well-established concepts from national identity theory, attitude theory, and reputation management. The new model is suited for application in comparative analyses of country images both on the level of different groups (such as a country’s domestic and foreign publics) as well as different societal levels (such as individual attitudes on the one hand and mass-mediated prestige information on the other).

Volk, Sophia Charlotte & Buhmann, Alexander (1)

New avenues in communication evaluation and measurement (E&M): towards a research agenda for the 2020s

Journal of Communication Management [Kronikk]

Zerfass, Ansgar; Tench, Ralph, Verčič, Dejan, Moreno, Angeles, Buhmann, Alexander & Hagelstein, Jens (2023)

European Communication Monitor 2023. Looking back and ahead: 15 years of research on strategic communication


Zerfass, Ansgar; Moreno, Angeles, Tench, Ralph, Verčič, Dejan & Buhmann, Alexander (2022)

European Communication Monitor 2022. Exploring diversity and empathic leadership, CommTech and consulting in communications. Results of a survey in 43 countries.

[Report]. EUPRERA European Public Relations Education and Research Association, EACD European Association of Communication Directors.

Johansen, Winni; Frandsen, Finn, Buhmann, Alexander, Luoma-aho, Vilma, Falkheimer, Jesper & Zerfass, Ansgar (2022)

The Nordic Communications Report 2022

[Report]. BI Forlag.

Buhmann, Alexander (2022)

Public Relations and the Governance of Artificial Intelligence

[Academic lecture]. 72th ICA Annual Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander; Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna, Tam, Lisa & Zerfass, Ansgar (2022)

The Use and Adoption of Videoconferencing in Stakeholder Communications

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Bucher, Eliane; Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2022)

AI Text Agents: Spring of Hope or Winter of Despair for Business and Society?

[Academic lecture]. Academy of Management Annual Conference.

Zerfass, Ansgar; Buhmann, Alexander, Tench, Ralph, Verčič, Dejan & Moreno, Angeles (2021)

European Communication Monitor 2021. CommTech and digital infrastructure, video-conferencing, and future roles for communication professionals. Results of a survey in 46 countries

[Non-fiction book]. EUPRERA/EACD.

Buhmann, Alexander; Linke, Jeanne, Frandsen, Finn, Zerfass, Ansgar, Luoma-aho, Vilma & Falkheimer, Jesper (2021)

The Nordic communications report 2021. Current and future trends in Norway, Denmark, Finland, and Sweden

[Report]. BI Forlag.

Buhmann, Alexander; Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna, Schoeneborn, Dennis & Haack, Patrick (2021)

Player or platform? How rhetorical figures affect the attribution of collective actorhood to new forms of organizing

[Academic lecture]. 71th ICA Annual Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2021)

Public deliberation and responsible innovation in artificial intelligence: the role of AI developers

[Academic lecture]. 27th annual conference of the International Sustainable Development Research Society (ISDRS).

Buhmann, Alexander; Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna, Schoeneborn, Dennis & Haack, Patrick (2021)

Player or platform? How metaphors affect the attribution of actorhood to new forms of organizing

[Academic lecture]. 81st Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Buhmann, Alexander (2021)

Digital maturity of communication departments and agencies across Europe: Insights from a cross-national study

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Buhmann, Alexander; Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna, Dennis, Schoeneborn & Haack, Patrick (2021)

Player or platform? How metaphors affect the attribution of actorhood to new forms of organizing

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Buhmann, Alexander; Schoeneborn, Dennis, Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna & Haack, Patrick (2020)

Anthropomorphizing metaphors or technomorphizing metonymies or both? Exploring key mechanisms in the attribution of organizational actorhood and responsibility

[Academic lecture]. VHB-Jahrestagung.

Bucher, Eliane; Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2020)

Responsibility Attributions in the Age of Algorithmization: New Challenges for Reputation Management

[Academic lecture]. 69th ICA Annual Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2020)

Deep learning meets deep democracy: The prospects and challenges of deliberation for responsible innovation in AI

[Academic lecture]. 36th EGOS Colloquium.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2020)

Kunstig intelligens gir omdømmerisiko

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders

Brønn, Peggy Simcic; Ihlen, Øyvind & Buhmann, Alexander (2020)

Kunstig intelligens og PR

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders

Buhmann, Alexander (2020)

Norwegian communication research group goes Nordic

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders

Buhmann, Alexander; Bucher, Eliane & Fieseler, Christian (2019)

Organizational responsibility in the age of algorithmization

[Academic lecture]. CSR Communication Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander; Schoeneborn, Dennis, Maltseva Reiby, Kateryna & Haack, Patrick (2019)

The charging and discharging of agency in corporate communication: Investigating the role of corporate metaphors and their effects on individual attributions of organizational actorhood

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Buhmann, Alexander & Sommerfeldt, Erich (2019)

rivers and Barriers in Public Diplomacy Performance Evaluation. Understanding Attitudes, Norms and Control

[Academic lecture]. 69th ICA Annual Conference.

Schoeneborn, Dennis; Buhmann, Alexander & Haak, Patrick (2019)

elf-portrayals of organizational actorhood and their effect on attributions of organizational responsibility and legitimacy: A vignette experiment

[Academic lecture]. 35th EGOS Colloquium.

Buhmann, Alexander; Schoeneborn, Dennis, Maltseva, Kateryna & Haak, Patrick (2019)

Multi-modal anthropomorphizing of organization: Testing the critical role of metaphor, visuals, and voice

[Academic lecture]. 79th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Buhmann, Alexander; Schoeneborn, Dennis, Maltseva, Kateryna & Haak, Patrick (2019)

Anthropomorphization vs. technomorphization in (self-)portrayals of organization and their effects on individual attributions of organizational actorhood, responsibility, and legitimacy

[Academic lecture]. 79th Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2019)

Tackling the Grand Challenge of Algorithmic Opacity Pragmatically: The Need for Communicative Principles in Robust Action Strategies

[Academic lecture]. Society for Business Ethics Annual Meetin.

van Gils, Suzanne & Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

Leadership communication can improve work: The effects of ethical value communica-tion on meaningful work, employee identification, and levels of stress

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Buhmann, Alexander; Schoeneborn, Dennis, Maltseva, Kateryna & Haak, Patrick (2019)

The charging and discharging of agency in corporate communication: Investigating the role of corporate metaphors and their effects on individual attributions of organizational actorhood

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA Annual Congress.

Buhmann, Alexander & Fieseler, Christian (2019)

Tackling sustainability challenges through digitally enabled forms of organizing: The constitutive role of communication

[Academic lecture]. CSR Communication Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

Hvordan kommunikasjons-avdelinger kan skape mer verdi

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders

Brønn, Peggy Simcic & Buhmann, Alexander (2019)

The wicked problem of reputation

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders

Solvoll, Mona K; Bang, Tor & Buhmann, Alexander (2018)

Vi stoler på kommunens nettsider, men er ikke fornøyd med innholdet

[Popular scientific article]. BI Business Review

Buhmann, Alexander (2018)

Standards demonstrate value

[Academic lecture]. 10th World Public Relations Forum.

Buhmann, Alexander & Zerfass, Ansgar (2018)

Understanding the dynamics of (non)standardization in communication measurement and evaluation

[Academic lecture]. 68th ICA Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander; Ihlen, Øyvind & Aaen-Stockdale, Craig (2018)

Big theory in a small field: how Habermas’ works have impacted public relations research

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA international congress.

Buhmann, Alexander; Fieseler, Christian, Maltseva, Kateryna & Fleck, Matthes (2018)

Controlling conversations: the effects of moderation strategies in online stakeholder dialogues

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA international congress.

Buhmann, Alexander; Passmann, Johannes & Fieseler, Christian (2018)

Algorithmic management: addressing the emerging challenge in organizational accountability

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA international congress.

Brønn, Peggy Simcic; Buhmann, Alexander, Sannes, Ragnvald & Torp, Øyvind (2017)

Successful use of technology in corporate communications

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 4(2), s. 6- 7.

Buhmann, Alexander (2017)

Measuring country image in 4D

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 4(2), s. 8- 9.

Buhmann, Alexander (2017)

Measuring what matters

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 4(2), s. 29- 29.

Buhmann, Alexander & Brønn, Peggy Simcic (2017)

Drivers and barriers in public relations measurement and evaluation: Analyzing effects on behavior.

[Academic lecture]. 20th Annual International Public Relations Research Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander (2017)

What can we learn from Norway and Sweden? Refugee issues and country images

[Academic lecture]. Conference of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences on ““Migration and Mobility”.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Zhang, Tiando, Buhmann, Alexander, White, Candace & Kiousis, Spiro (2017)

A Multi-Cultural Measurement Instrument for Public Diplomacy: Analyzing Value Drivers and Effects of Country Images on Stakeholders’ Behavior in Three Countries.

[Academic lecture]. 67th ICA Conference.

Buhmann, Alexander & Ihlen, Øyvind (2017)

The fate of Habermas’ theory in public relations. A quantitative review of three decades of public relations research

[Academic lecture]. 67th ICA Conference.

Bang, Tor; Solvoll, Mona K & Buhmann, Alexander (2017)

Stoler på kommunens nettsider

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 4(1), s. 18- 19.

Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

PR community is upping the game

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 3(2), s. 28- 29.

Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

The true value of public relations

[Popular scientific article]. Communication for Leaders, 3(1), s. 12- 13.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Buhmann, Alexander & Lepori, Benedetto (2016)

Developing indicators for the usage value of research in communication sciences

[Academic lecture]. CRUS Conference “A Swiss way to quality: National and International Perspectives”.

Buhmann, Alexander; Lepori, Benedetto & Ingenhoff, Diana (2016)

Clashing conventions? Exploring human resource management in the cleavage between academic field traditions and new institutional rules. Quantitative and qualitative insights from the field of communication and media studies in Switzerland

[Academic lecture]. the 21th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Zhang, Tianduo, Buhmann, Alexander, White, Candace & Kiousis, Spiro (2016)

Country of origin reversed: spill-over effects of corporate crises on home country's image

[Academic lecture]. ECREA 6th European Communication Conference.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Buhmann, Alexander & Dolea, Alina (2016)

Public diplomacy: beginnings and development of nation PR in Switzerland [German title: Public Diplomacy: Entstehung und Geschichte der Nationen-PR der Schweiz]

[Academic lecture]. Annual Conference of the DGPuK Interest Group PR and Organizational Communication.

Ingenhoff, Diana; Buhmann, Alexander, White, Candace, Zhang, Tianduo & Kiousis, Spiro (2016)

Exploring reputational spillover effects: How corporate crises affect their home country’s reputation

[Academic lecture]. EUPRERA International Congress.

White, Candace; Ingenhoff, Diana & Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

Nation branding or cultural diplomacy? The role and impact of the creative industries on national reputation

[Academic lecture]. ECREA Colloquium on Nation Branding and the Creative Industries.

Buhmann, Alexander (2016)

Country image cultivation in Swiss public diplomacy: Its role, strategies, and success

[Academic lecture]. 57th Annual Convention of the International Studies Associatio.

Ingenhoff, Diana; White, Candace, Buhmann, Alexander, Zhang, Tianduo & Kiousis, Spiro (2016)

Developing a scale to measure country image

[Academic lecture]. 19th annual International Public Relations Research Conference.

Academic Degrees
Year Academic Department Degree
2015 University of Fribourg Ph.D.
2010 University of Siegen M.A.
Work Experience
Year Employer Job Title
2016 - Present BI Norwegian Business School Assistant Professor
2022 - 2023 University of Malaga Visiting Researcher
2022 - 2022 Mid Sweden University Adjunct Researcher
2016 - 2019 USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism Research Fellow
2011 - 2015 University of Fribourg Research Assistant
2013 - 2014 University of Santa Clara Visiting Researcher
2011 - 2011 University of Siegen Research Assistant
2009 - 2010 University of Siegen Undergraduate Assistant