Centres, groups and other initiatives

Centre for Ocean Business

OBZ is a hub for the Ocean Business Ecosystem located at BI Norwegian Business School.




  • Iva Parlov

    The 2007 Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks: The Implications for the Law of the Sea

    Aldo Chircop et al. (eds), Ocean Yearbook 36 (Brill 2022) 659-679

    Abstract: On April 14, 2015, the Nairobi International Convention on the Removal of Wrecks (WRC) entered into force to provide uniform international rules and procedures to ensure prompt and effective removal of hazardous wrecks and payment of compensation for the costs thereby incurred. This article investigates the status of the main provisions of the WRC in relation to the jurisdictional framework set out in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), with the ambition to clarify the potential of the WRC to be opposable in relation to ships registered in non-parties. The conclusion is that State practice to some extent hints at emerging evidence of such opposability. However, the legal basis remains debatable as it is unclear whether the WRC may have the potential to be brought under the scope of Article 211(5) of UNCLOS as a reflection of “generally accepted international rules and standards” (GAIRAS).

  • Iva Parlov

    Coastal State Jurisdiction over Ships in Need of Assistance, Maritime Casualties and Shipwrecks (Brill 2022)

    Book, 1-315

    Abstract: This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the rights and obligations of coastal States over ships in need of assistance, maritime casualties and shipwrecks under international customary law, treaty law and other international instruments. Important regime interactions are discussed in depth, most extensively the interaction between the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and regulations adopted at the International Maritime Organization, but also between conventional and customary law, public and private law. In contrast to the existing literature that mostly focuses on separate issues such as intervention, places of refuge, salvage and wreck removal, this book takes a systemic approach to consider from the coastal State’s perspective jurisdictional problems at each stage of a maritime occurrence, deteriorating into a maritime casualty and ultimately into a wreck. Particular attention is given to legal differences associated with maritime zones and the physical state of a ship. Adding a temporal scale to the analysis, the book provides an insight into the legal developments since the Torrey Canyon (1967) disaster and offers some reflections on the directions in which the tide is flowing, not least in light of the recent European Union’s proposal for amendments of the IMO Guidelines on Places of Refuge.

  • Ellen J. Eftestøl & Emilie Yliheljo

    International Shipping: Who Levels the Playing Field?

    December 2022. In book: Regulation of Risk (pp.282-314). DOI:10.1163/9789004518681_010

  • Jostein Tvedt

    Optimal Entry and Exit Decisions Under Uncertainty and the Impact of Mean Reversion

    Operations Research Forum, article number 54 (2022)

  • Jostein Tvedt

    Floating offshore wind and the real options to relocate

    Energy Economics, vol 116, December 2022


  • Julia M Gaunce, Jan J Solski, Iva Parlov, Maria M das Neves

    Anthropocentric Ocean Connectivity: A Pluralistic Legal-Regulatory Model (2021)

    12 Arctic Review on Law and Politics 222-237

    Abstract: This article proposes a model of anthropocentric ocean connectivity based on the concept of human perspective as location. Within this location, anthropocentrism can be, but is not necessarily, an exclusive or dominant valuation of the human. In fact, conceptions of both anthropocentrism and of ocean connectivity are pluralistic. These and other pluralisms are borne out in this article’s content and structure, which takes the form of explorations of anthropocentric connectivity in relation to four specific ocean-related human activities. First, Jan Solski applies understandings of connectivity as “flow” in the context of strategic ocean geopolitics. Second, Iva Parlov analyzes current doctrinal issues and interactions at the international level with respect to the legal regime for places of refuge for ships in need of assistance. Third, Maria Madalena das Neves examines ocean connectivity in the context of transboundary energy trade and market integration, with particular attention to geopolitical and ecological connectivity. Finally, Julia Gaunce proposes that the making and application of transnational rules and standards for ships in polar waters enhances certain connections and disrupts others, to the detriment of oceans and people, and that broadening connectivity especially in respect of Arctic Indigenous people(s) could help address challenges faced by oceans and ocean governance.

  • Bass E. A. & Grøgaard, B.

    The long-term energy transition: Drivers, outcomes, and the role of the multinational enterprise.

    Journal of International Business Studies. 52(5): 807-823.



  • Ellen J. Eftestøl & Suvi Sankari

    Nudging a behavioural change in maritime carriage of goods - the role of information

    November 2019. In book: Jason Chuah (ed): Maritime Law and Regulation (pp.170-186). Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing Authors. DOI:10.4337/9781786438799.00014

  • Edited by Ellen J. Eftestøl, Suvi Sankari, and Anu Bask

    Sustainable and Efficient Transport

    Incentives for Promoting a Green Transport Market. https://doi.org/10.4337/9781788119283

    Abstract: The EU Commission has set the goal of facilitating a competitive transport system, increasing mobility and supporting growth while simultaneously reaching a target of 60 per cent emissions reductions by 2050. In light of past performance and estimated development, the target will not be reached without further behavioural change in the transport sector. This interdisciplinary book examines how such a behavioural shift can be achieved by various organizational and legal means, focusing primarily on the European Union and its specific policies related to greening transport.


  • Ellen J. Eftestøl

    European Sustainable Carriage of Goods

    The Role of Contract Law. Published June 1, 2018 by Routledge

    This work discusses the rapidly developing European transport policy on sustainable freight and the connected efforts initiated by the European Commission (EC) on greening transport by the means of contract law.

  • Arne Fredheim, Torger Reve

    Future prospects of marine aquaculture




  • Ellen J. Eftestøl

    European Sustainable Freight – The Role of Contract Law

    June 2011

    Abstract: Sustainability is a core issue in the rapidly developing European Transport Policy. Increased use of multimodal or intermodal transport is an important aspect of this policy. The article discusses the role of contract law in this context. The first question discussed is how contract law could be used as a means of regulating traffic flows. Providing the multimodal industry with a predictable and transparent legal framework has been identified as one option. The second question discussed is how environmental issues can be integrated in the obligations of the planners and providers of a multimodal carriage of cargo, such as the freight forwarders and the multimodal carriers. The task is difficult due to the “nature” of contract law as self-implementing and not controlled by authorities. The author argues that the environmental issues are so important that it nevertheless will force its way into contract law. This development is already visible in business practisces. An example is the growing European group of green transport integrators, which focus on sustainable transport.

  • Aslesen, H. W.

    Roles of KISA in aquaculture in Norway

    In Cristina Martinez-Fernandez, Ian Miles and Tamara Weyman (Edts) ”The Knowledge Economy at Work. Skills and Innovation in Knowledge Intensive Service Activities”. Edward Elgar Publishing. Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, USA