Norwegian Business School BI

Centres, groups and other initiatives

Centre for Multisensory Marketing (CMM)

Multisensory processes at the centre of consumer behaviour research.

Selected publications


Motoki, K., Park, J., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2022). Contextual acceptance of novel foods: Insects, cultured-meat, plant-based meat, and 3D-printed foods. Food Quality and Preference, 96, 104368.

Nozawa, C., Togawa, T., Velasco, C., & Motoki, K. (2022). Consumer responses to the use of artificial intelligence in luxury restaurants. Food Quality and Preference, 96, 104436.

Elvekrok, I., Veflen, N., Scholderer, J., & Sørensen, B. T. (2022). Effects of network relations on destination development and business results. Tourism Management, 88, 104402.


Petit, O., Javornik, A., & Velasco, C. (in press). We eat first with our (digital) eyes: Enhancing simulation of eating through visual-enabling technologies. Journal of Retailing.

Motoki, K., Takahashi, N., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2021). Is classical music sweeter than jazz? Crossmodal influences of background music and taste/flavour on healthy and indulgent food preferences. Food Quality and Preference, 96, 104380.

Velasco, C., Escobar Barbosa, F., Petit, O., & Wang, Q.-J. (2021). Impossible (food) experiences in extended reality. Frontiers in Computer Science, 3:716846.

Pombo, M., & Velasco, C. (2021). How aesthetic features convey the concept of brand premiumness. Psychology and Marketing, 38, 1475-1497.

Velasco, C., Sunaga, T., Narumi, T., Motoki, K., Spence, C., & Petit, O. (2021). Multisensory consumer-computer interaction. Journal of Business Research, 134, 716-719.

Cornelio, P., Velasco, C., & Obrist, M. (2021). Multisensory integration as per technological advances: A review. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 15:652611.

Reinoso-Carvalho, F., Campo, R., De Luca, M., & Velasco, C. (2021). Towards healthier cookie habits: Assessing the role of packaging visual appearance in the expectations for dietary cookies in digital environments. Frontiers in Psychology, 12:679443.

Barbosa-Escobar, F., Velasco, C., Motoki, K., Byrne, D. V., & Wang, Q.-J. (2021). The temperature of emotions. PLOS ONE, 16:e0252408.

Wang, J.-Q., Barbosa Escobar, F., Alves da Mota, P, & Velasco, C. (2021). Getting started with virtual reality for sensory and consumer Science – Current practices and future perspectives. Food Research International, 145, 110410.

Velasco, C. & Obrist, M. (2021). Multisensory experiences: A primer. Frontiers in Computer Science, 3: 614524.

Barbosa, F., Petit, O., & Velasco, C. (2021). Virtual terroir and the premium coffee experience. Frontiers in Psychology, 12:586983.

Velasco, C. & Veflen, N. (2021). Aesthetic plating and motivation in context. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 24, 100323.

Almiron-Chamadoira, P., Barbosa, F., Pathak, A., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2020). Searching for the premium beer sound. Food Quality and Preference, 88, 104088.


Evanschitzky, H., Bartikowski, B., Baines, T., Blut, M., Brock, C., Kleinlercher, K., Naik, P., Petit, O., Rudolph, T., Spence, C., Velasco, C., Wünderlich, N. V.  (2020). Digital disruption in retailing and beyond. Journal of Service Management Research, 4, 187-204.

Motoki, K. & Velasco, C. (2020). Taste-shape correspondences in context. Food Quality and Preference, 88, 104082.

Bravo, L. A., Reinoso-Carvalho, F., & Velasco, C. (2020). The effects of noise control in consumer tasting experiences. Food Quality and Preference, 86, 104020.

Wang, J. Q., Spence, C., & Knoeferle, K. (2020). Timing is everything: Onset timing moderates the crossmodal influence of background sound on taste perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 46, 1118-1126.

Velasco, C. & Obrist, M. (2020). Multisensory experiences: Where the senses meet technology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Veflen, N., Scholderer, J., & Langsrud, S. (2020). Situated food safety risk and the influence of social norms. Risk Analysis, 40, 1092-1110.

Betancur, M. I., Motoki, K., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2020). Factors influencing the choice of beer: A review. Food Research International, 137, 109367.

Motoki, K., Ishikawa, S., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2020). Contextual acceptance of insect-based foods. Food Quality and Preference, 85, 103982.

Pathak, A., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2020). The sound of branding: An analysis of the initial phonemes of popular brand names. Journal of Brand Management, 27, 339-354.

Velasco, C., Pathak, A., Woods, A., Corredor, A., & Elliot, A. J. (2020). The relation between symmetry in food packaging and approach and avoidance words. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 654-663.

Motoki, K., Saito, T., Park, J., Velasco, C., Spence, C., & Sugiura, M. (2020). Tasting names: Systematic investigations of taste-speech sounds associations. Food Quality and Preference, 80, 10301.


Pathak, A., Velasco, C., Petit, O., & Calvert, G. (2019). Going to great lengths in pursuit of luxury: How longer brand names can enhance the luxury perception of a brand. Psychology & Marketing, 36, 951-963.

Spence, C., Reinoso-Carvalho, F., Velasco, C., & Wang, J.-Q. (2019). Auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behavior. Leiden: Brill.

Obrist, M., Tu, Y., Yao, L., & Velasco, C. (2019). Space food experiences: Designing passenger’s eating experiences for future space travel scenarios. Frontiers in Computer Science, 1:3.

Spence, C., Reinoso Carvalho, F., Velasco, C., & Wang, J. Q. (2019). Extrinsic auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behaviour:  An interdisciplinary review. Multisensory Research, 32, 275-318.

Petit, O., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2019). Digital sensory marketing: Integrating new technologies into multisensory online experience. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 45, 42-61.

Velasco, C. & Spence, C (Eds). (2019). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan.

Velasco, C., Adams, C., Petit, O., & Spence, C. (2019). On the localization of tastes and products in 2D space. Food Quality and Preference, 71, 438-446.


Petit, O., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2018). Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behaviour. Marketing Letters, 29, 435-449.

Velasco, C., Karunanayaka, K., & Nijholt, A. (Eds). (2018). Multisensory human-food interaction. Lausanne: Frontiers Media.

Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2018). On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the 'food and beverage' and 'home and personal care' categories. Food Quality and Preference, 68, 226-237.

Velasco, C., Le, T., Beh, E. J., & Marmolejo-Ramos, F. (2018). The shapes associated with the concept of “sweet and sour” foods. Food Quality and Preference, 68, 250-257.

Turoman, N., Velasco, C., Chen, Y.-C., Huang, P.-C., & Spence, C. (2018). Symmetry and its role in the crossmodal correspondence between shape and taste. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80, 738-751.

Velasco, C., Obrist, M., Petit, O., & Spence, C. (2018). Multisensory technology for flavor augmentation: A mini review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:26.

Velasco, C., Hyndman, S., & Spence, C. (2018). The role of typeface curvilinearity on taste expectations and perception. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 11, 63-74.

Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., Wan, X., Salgado-Montejo, A., Bernal-Torres, C. A., Cheok, A. D., & Spence, C. (2018). The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts, 12, 236-248.



Asioli, D., Varela, P., Hersleth, M., Almli, V. L., Olsen, N. V., & Næs, T. (2017). A discussion of recent methodologies for combining sensory and extrinsic product properties in consumer studies. Food Quality and Preference, 56, 266-273.

Hanssen, O. J., Vold, M., Schakenda, V., Tufte, P. A., Møller, H., Olsen, N. V., & Skaret, J. (2017). Environmental profile, packaging intensity and food waste generation for three types of dinner meals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 395-402.

Knoeferle, K., Li, J., Maggioni, E., & Spence, C. (2017). What drives sound symbolism? Different acoustic cues underlie sound-size and sound-shape mappings. Scientific Reports, 7, 5562.

Knoeferle, K. M., Paus, V. C., & Vossen, A. (2017). An upbeat crowd: Fast in-store music alleviates negative effects of high social density on customers’ spending. Journal of Retailing.

Moeini-Jazani, M., Knoeferle, K., de Molière, L., Gatti, E., & Warlop, L. (2017). Social power increases interoceptive accuracy. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:1322.

Obrist, M., Gatti, E., Maggioni, E., Vi, C. T., & Velasco, C. (2017). Multisensory experiences in HCI. IEEE MultiMedia, 24, 9-13.

Petit, O., Spence, C., Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., & Cheok, A. D. (2017). Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behaviour via mental imagery. Journal of Business Research, 75, 240-248.

Spence, C., Obrist, M., Velasco, C., & Ranasinghe, N. (2017). Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107C, 62-74.

Veflen, N., Storstad, O., Samuelsen, B., Langsrud, S., Hagtvedt, T., Ueland, O., Gregersen, F., & Scholderer, J. (2017). Food Scares: Reflections and Reactions. Journal of Food Systems Dynamics, 8, 155-164.

Vi, C. T., Gatti, E., Ablart, D., Velasco, C., Obrist, M. (2017). Not just see, but feel, smell, and taste the art: A case study on the creation and evaluation of multisensory art experiences in the museum. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, 1-14.

Wang, Q. J., Knoeferle, K., & Spence, C. (2017). Music to make your mouth water? Assessing the potential influence of sour music on salivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:638.



Knoeferle, K. M., Knoeferle, P., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2016). Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers’ visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 196-210.

Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., Petit, O., Cheok, A. D., & Spence, C. (2016). Crossmodal correspondences between taste and shape, and their implications for product packaging: A review. Food Quality and Preference, 52, 17-26.



Knoeferle, K., Woods, A., Käppler, F., & Spence, C. (2015). That sounds sweet: Using crossmodal correspondences to communicate gustatory attributes. Psychology & Marketing, 32, 107-120.

Velasco, C., Wan, C., Knoeferle, K., Zhou, X., Salgado-Montejo, A., & Spence, C. (2015). Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 301