Centres, groups and other initiatives

Centre for Multisensory Marketing (CMM)

Multisensory processes at the centre of consumer behaviour research.

Selected publications


Wang, J. Q., Spence, C., & Knoeferle, K. (in press). Timing is everything: Onset timing moderates the crossmodal influence of background sound on taste perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance.

Velasco, C. & Obrist, M. (in press). Multisensory experiences: Where the senses meet technology. Oxford University Press.

Veflen, N., Scholderer, J., & Langsrud, S. (in press). Situated food safety risk and the influence of social norms. Risk Analysis.

Betancur, M. I., Motoki, K., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2020). Factors influencing the choice of beer: A review. Food Research International, 137, 109367.

Motoki, K., Ishikawa, S., Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2020). Contextual acceptance of insect-based foods. Food Quality and Preference, 85, 103982.

Pathak, A., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2020). The sound of branding: An analysis of the initial phonemes of popular brand names. Journal of Brand Management, 27, 339-354.

Velasco, C., Pathak, A., Woods, A., Corredor, A., & Elliot, A. J. (2020). The relation between symmetry in food packaging and approach and avoidance words. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 654-663.

Motoki, K., Saito, T., Park, J., Velasco, C., Spence, C., & Sugiura, M. (2020). Tasting names: Systematic investigations of taste-speech sounds associations. Food Quality and Preference, 80, 10301.


Pathak, A., Velasco, C., Petit, O., & Calvert, G. (2019). Going to great lengths in pursuit of luxury: How longer brand names can enhance the luxury perception of a brand. Psychology & Marketing, 36, 951-963.

Spence, C., Reinoso-Carvalho, F., Velasco, C., & Wang, J.-Q. (2019). Auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behavior. Leiden: Brill.

Obrist, M., Tu, Y., Yao, L., & Velasco, C. (2019). Space food experiences: Designing passenger’s eating experiences for future space travel scenarios. Frontiers in Computer Science, 1:3.

Spence, C., Reinoso Carvalho, F., Velasco, C., & Wang, J. Q. (2019). Extrinsic auditory contributions to food perception and consumer behaviour:  An interdisciplinary review. Multisensory Research, 32, 275-318.

Petit, O., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2019). Digital sensory marketing: Integrating new technologies into multisensory online experience. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 45, 42-61.

Velasco, C. & Spence, C (Eds). (2019). Multisensory packaging: Designing new product experiences. Cham: Palgrave MacMillan.

Velasco, C., Adams, C., Petit, O., & Spence, C. (2019). On the localization of tastes and products in 2D space. Food Quality and Preference, 71, 438-446.


Petit, O., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2018). Are large portions always bad? Using the Delboeuf illusion on food packaging to nudge consumer behaviour. Marketing Letters, 29, 435-449.

Velasco, C., Karunanayaka, K., & Nijholt, A. (Eds). (2018). Multisensory human-food interaction. Lausanne: Frontiers Media.

Spence, C., & Velasco, C. (2018). On the multiple effects of packaging colour on consumer behaviour and product experience in the 'food and beverage' and 'home and personal care' categories. Food Quality and Preference, 68, 226-237.

Velasco, C., Le, T., Beh, E. J., & Marmolejo-Ramos, F. (2018). The shapes associated with the concept of “sweet and sour” foods. Food Quality and Preference, 68, 250-257.

Turoman, N., Velasco, C., Chen, Y.-C., Huang, P.-C., & Spence, C. (2018). Symmetry and its role in the crossmodal correspondence between shape and taste. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 80, 738-751.

Velasco, C., Obrist, M., Petit, O., & Spence, C. (2018). Multisensory technology for flavor augmentation: A mini review. Frontiers in Psychology, 9:26.

Velasco, C., Hyndman, S., & Spence, C. (2018). The role of typeface curvilinearity on taste expectations and perception. International Journal of Gastronomy and Food Science, 11, 63-74.

Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., Wan, X., Salgado-Montejo, A., Bernal-Torres, C. A., Cheok, A. D., & Spence, C. (2018). The taste of typefaces in different countries and languages. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and The Arts, 12, 236-248.



Asioli, D., Varela, P., Hersleth, M., Almli, V. L., Olsen, N. V., & Næs, T. (2017). A discussion of recent methodologies for combining sensory and extrinsic product properties in consumer studies. Food Quality and Preference, 56, 266-273.

Hanssen, O. J., Vold, M., Schakenda, V., Tufte, P. A., Møller, H., Olsen, N. V., & Skaret, J. (2017). Environmental profile, packaging intensity and food waste generation for three types of dinner meals. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 395-402.

Knoeferle, K., Li, J., Maggioni, E., & Spence, C. (2017). What drives sound symbolism? Different acoustic cues underlie sound-size and sound-shape mappings. Scientific Reports, 7, 5562.

Knoeferle, K. M., Paus, V. C., & Vossen, A. (2017). An upbeat crowd: Fast in-store music alleviates negative effects of high social density on customers’ spending. Journal of Retailing.

Moeini-Jazani, M., Knoeferle, K., de Molière, L., Gatti, E., & Warlop, L. (2017). Social power increases interoceptive accuracy. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:1322.

Obrist, M., Gatti, E., Maggioni, E., Vi, C. T., & Velasco, C. (2017). Multisensory experiences in HCI. IEEE MultiMedia, 24, 9-13.

Petit, O., Spence, C., Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., & Cheok, A. D. (2017). Changing the influence of portion size on consumer behaviour via mental imagery. Journal of Business Research, 75, 240-248.

Spence, C., Obrist, M., Velasco, C., & Ranasinghe, N. (2017). Digitizing the chemical senses: Possibilities & pitfalls. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 107C, 62-74.

Veflen, N., Storstad, O., Samuelsen, B., Langsrud, S., Hagtvedt, T., Ueland, O., Gregersen, F., & Scholderer, J. (2017). Food Scares: Reflections and Reactions. Journal of Food Systems Dynamics, 8, 155-164.

Vi, C. T., Gatti, E., Ablart, D., Velasco, C., Obrist, M. (2017). Not just see, but feel, smell, and taste the art: A case study on the creation and evaluation of multisensory art experiences in the museum. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 108, 1-14.

Wang, Q. J., Knoeferle, K., & Spence, C. (2017). Music to make your mouth water? Assessing the potential influence of sour music on salivation. Frontiers in Psychology, 8:638.



Knoeferle, K. M., Knoeferle, P., Velasco, C., & Spence, C. (2016). Multisensory brand search: How the meaning of sounds guides consumers’ visual attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 22, 196-210.

Velasco, C., Woods, A. T., Petit, O., Cheok, A. D., & Spence, C. (2016). Crossmodal correspondences between taste and shape, and their implications for product packaging: A review. Food Quality and Preference, 52, 17-26.



Knoeferle, K., Woods, A., Käppler, F., & Spence, C. (2015). That sounds sweet: Using crossmodal correspondences to communicate gustatory attributes. Psychology & Marketing, 32, 107-120.

Velasco, C., Wan, C., Knoeferle, K., Zhou, X., Salgado-Montejo, A., & Spence, C. (2015). Searching for flavor labels in food products: The influence of color-flavor congruence and association strength. Frontiers in Psychology, 6: 301